The 14 nanometer (14 nm) node is the technology node following the 22 nm/(20 nm) node. The exact naming of this technology nodes as "16 nm" originally came from the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). By current estimates the 14 nm technology is projected to be reached by semiconductor companies in the 2014 timeframe.
14 nm resolution is difficult to achieve in a polymeric resist, even with electron beam lithography. In addition, the chemical effects of ionizing radiation also limit reliable resolution to about 30 nm, which is also achievable using current state-of-the-art immersion lithography. Hardmask materials and multiple patterning will be required.
A more significant limitation comes from plasma damage to low-k materials. The extent of damage is typically 20 nm thick, but can also go up to about 100 nm. The damage sensitivity is expected to get worse as the low-k materials become more porous.
For comparison, the lattice constant, or distance between surface atoms, of unstrained silicon is 543 pm (0.543 nm). Thus fewer than thirty atoms would span the channel length, leading to substantial leakage.
On February 18, 2011, Intel announced that it would construct a new $5 billion fab in Arizona, designed to manufacture chips using 14 nm manufacturing processes and leading-edge 300 mm wafers. The new lab will be named Fab 42, and construction will start in the middle of 2011. Intel billed the new facility as "the most advanced, high-volume manufacturing facility in the world," and said it would come on line in 2013. Intel has since decided to postpone opening this facility and instead upgrade its existing facilities to support 14-nm chips.
In 2005, Toshiba demonstrated 15 nm gate length and 10 nm fin width using a sidewall spacer process. It has been suggested that for the 16 nm node, a logic transistor would have a gate length of about 5 nm.
In December 2007, Toshiba demonstrated a prototype memory unit that uses 15 nanometer thin lines.
In September 2013, Intel demonstrated an Ultrabook laptop that uses a 14 nm Broadwell CPU and Intel CEO Brian Krzanich said "[CPU] will be shipping by the end of this year." Shipment will be delayed until Q4 2014.
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