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|Centuries:||17th century – 18th century – 19th century|
|Decades:||1700s 1710s 1720s – 1730s – 1740s 1750s 1760s|
|Years:||1727 1728 1729 – 1730 – 1731 1732 1733|
|1730 by topic:|
|Arts and Sciences|
|Archaeology – Architecture – Art – Literature (Poetry) – Music – Science|
|Canada – Great Britain –|
|Lists of leaders|
|Colonial governors – State leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2483|
|British Regnal year||3 Geo. 2 – 4 Geo. 2|
— to —庚戌年十一月廿二日
|- Vikram Samvat||1786–1787|
|- Shaka Samvat||1652–1653|
|- Kali Yuga||4831–4832|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||730–731|
|Japanese calendar||Kyōhō 15
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 11 days|
|Minguo calendar||182 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2273|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 1730|
- January 29 – Anna Ivanovna (Anna of Russia) becomes tsarina, following the death of her cousin, Tsar Peter II.
- April 8 – Shearith Israel, the first synagogue in New York City, is dedicated.
- May 15 – Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend, retires from his role in the government of Great Britain, leaving Robert Walpole as sole and undisputed leader of the Cabinet (i.e., prime minister). In the new Walpole Ministry, Sir William Strickland, 4th Baronet, becomes Secretary at War, and Henry Pelham is Paymaster of the Forces. Spencer Compton, 1st Earl of Wilmington briefly becomes Lord Privy Seal.
- May – At the urging of Sir William Gooch, the Virginia House of Burgesses passes the Tobacco Inspection Act of 1730 to regulate the quality of Virginian tobacco and establish inspection warehouses near plantations in the tidewater region.
- Establishment of Wright's Ferry under the authority of the Province of Pennsylvania triggers Cresap's War – a nine year long conflict also known as the Maryland-Pennsylvania boundary dispute – the conflict mainly centered in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania and York County, Pennsylvania on either banks of the Susquehanna River.
- July 8 – 1730 Valparaiso earthquake in Chile.
- July 12 – Pope Clement XII succeeds Pope Benedict XIII as the 246th pope.
- September 17 – Mahmud I (1730–1754) succeeds Ahmed III (1703–1730) as Ottoman Emperor.
- October 22 – Construction of the Ladoga Canal linking the Neva and Svir Rivers, one of the first major navigable canals constructed in Russia, is completed.
Date unknown 
- The Glasite sect is formed.
- March 7 – Baron de Breteuil, last prime minister of the French monarchy (d. 1807)
- April 16 – Henry Clinton, British general (d. 1795)
- April 26 – John Moore, Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1805)
- May 13 – Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1782)
- June 21 – Motoori Norinaga, Japanese philologist and scholar of the kokugaku school (d. 1801)
- July 12 – Josiah Wedgwood, English potter (d. 1795)
- July 26 – Charles Messier, French astronomer (d. 1817)
- September 17 – Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, Prussian army officer (d. 1794)
- November 23 – William Moultrie, American general (d. 1805)
- December 14 – James Bruce, Scottish explorer (d. 1794)
- December 25 – Philip Mazzei, Italian physician and friend of Thomas Jefferson (d. 1816)
- December 30 – William Hamilton, British diplomat and antiquary (d. 1803)
- date unknown
- January 1
- January 29 – Tsar Peter II of Russia (b. 1715)
- February 21 – Pope Benedict XIII (b. 1649)
- March 9 – Frances Talbot, Countess of Tyrconnel (b. c. 1647)
- March 20 – Adrienne Lecouvreur, French actress (b. 1692)
- March 23 – Charles I, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel) (b. 1654)
- May 30 – Arabella Churchill, English mistress of James II of England (b. 1648)
- June 18 Yinxiang, Qing Dynasty prince (b. 1686)
- July 7 – Olivier Levasseur, French pirate
- July 18 – François de Neufville, duc de Villeroi, French soldier (b. 1644)
- September 27 – Laurence Eusden, English poet (b. 1688)
- October 12 – Frederick IV, King of Denmark and Norway (b. 1671)
- October 15 – Antoine Laumet de La Mothe, sieur de Cadillac, French explorer (b. 1658)
- October 23 – Anne Oldfield, English actress (b. 1683)
- November 21 – François de Troy, French portrait artist (b. 1645)