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This article is about the year 1739.
|Centuries:||17th century – 18th century – 19th century|
|Decades:||1700s 1710s 1720s – 1730s – 1740s 1750s 1760s|
|Years:||1736 1737 1738 – 1739 – 1740 1741 1742|
|1739 by topic:|
|Arts and Sciences|
|Archaeology – Architecture – Art – Literature (Poetry) – Music – Science|
|Canada – Great Britain –|
|Lists of leaders|
|Colonial governors – State leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2492|
|Bahá'í calendar||−105 – −104|
|British Regnal year||12 Geo. 2 – 13 Geo. 2|
|Chinese calendar||戊午年 (Earth Horse)
4435 or 4375
— to —
己未年 (Earth Goat)
4436 or 4376
|- Vikram Samvat||1795–1796|
|- Shaka Samvat||1661–1662|
|- Kali Yuga||4840–4841|
|Japanese calendar||Genbun 4
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 11 days|
|Minguo calendar||173 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2282|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1739.|
- January 1 – Bouvet Island is discovered by French explorer Jean-Baptiste Charles Bouvet de Lozier in the South Atlantic Ocean.
- February 24 – Battle of Karnal: The army of Iranian ruler Nader Shah defeats the forces of the Mughal emperor of India, Muhammad Shah.
- March 20 – Nader Shah occupies Delhi in India and sacks the city, stealing the jewels of the Peacock Throne, including the Koh-i-Noor.
- May 12 – John Wesley lays the foundation stone of the New Room, Bristol in England, the world's first Methodist meeting house.
- June 2 – The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences is founded in Stockholm.
- September 9 – The Stono Rebellion erupts near Charleston.
- September 18 – The Treaty of Belgrade brings the Russo-Turkish War (1735–1739) to an end.
- October 3 – The Treaty of Niš is signed.
- October 17 – The Foundling Hospital is created in London by royal charter.
- October 23 – War of Jenkins' Ear: Great Britain declares war on Spain.
- November 20–22 – War of Jenkins' Ear: Battle of Porto Bello: British marine forces capture the Panamanian silver exporting town of Portobelo from the Spanish.
- Ecuador becomes a part of New Granada.
- 84,000 farmers revolt in the province of Iwaki in Japan.
- Plinian eruption of Mount Tarumae volcano in Japan.
- The first Bible in Estonian is published.
- January 25 – Charles François Dumouriez, French general (d. 1823)
- February 15 – Alexandre-Théodore Brongniart, French architect (d. 1813)
- March 16 – George Clymer, American politician and Founding Father (d. 1813)
- March 19 – Charles-François Lebrun, duc de Plaisance, Third Consul of France (d. 1824)
- July 26 – George Clinton, American soldier and politician (d. 1812)
- August 31 – Johann Augustus Eberhard, German theologian and philosopher (d. 1809)
- November 2 – Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf, Austrian composer (d. 1799)
- November 20 – Jean-François de la Harpe, French critic (d. 1803)
- December 14 – Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours, French politician (d. 1817)
- date unknown
- January 20 – Francesco Galli Bibiena, Italian architect/designer (b. 1659)
- April 7 – Dick Turpin, English highwayman (hanged) (b. 1705)
- April 19 – Nicholas Saunderson, English scientist and mathematician (b. 1682)
- July 24 – Benedetto Marcello, Italian composer (b. 1686)
- September 8 – Yuri Troubetzkoy, Governor of Belgorod (b. 1668)
- September 12 – Ernest Louis, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (b. 1667)
- October 18 – Antônio José da Silva, Brazilian-born dramatist (b. 1705)