|Centuries:||17th century – 18th century – 19th century|
|Decades:||1720s 1730s 1740s – 1750s – 1760s 1770s 1780s|
|Years:||1748 1749 1750 – 1751 – 1752 1753 1754|
|1751 by topic:|
|Arts and Sciences|
|Archaeology – Architecture – Art – Literature (Poetry) – Music – Science|
|Canada – Great Britain –|
|Lists of leaders|
|Colonial governors – State leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2504|
|British Regnal year||24 Geo. 2 – 25 Geo. 2|
|Chinese calendar||庚午年 (Metal Horse)
4447 or 4387
— to —
辛未年 (Metal Goat)
4448 or 4388
|- Vikram Samvat||1807–1808|
|- Shaka Samvat||1673–1674|
|- Kali Yuga||4852–4853|
|Japanese calendar||Kan'en 4 / Hōreki 1
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 11 days|
|Minguo calendar||161 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2294|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1751.|
Year 1751 (MDCCLI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar. In Britain and its colonies, 1751 only had 282 days due to the Calendar Act of 1750.
- March 25
- March 31 – Frederick, Prince of Wales dies in London and is succeeded by his son, the future George III of the United Kingdom, as heir-apparent to the British throne and Prince of Wales. His mother Augusta of Saxe-Gotha becomes Dowager Princess of Wales.
- May 11 – The Pennsylvania legislature grants a charter to Benjamin Franklin and Dr. Thomas Bond for the establishment in Philadelphia of the first hospital in the Colonies.
- July 28 – Kingdom of Kartli defeats a large army of Tabriz Khanate under Erekle II in the Battle of Kirkhbulakh
- July 31 – Fire destroys 1,000 houses in Stockholm.
- August 13 – The Academy and College of Philadelphia, predecessor to the private University of Pennsylvania, opens its doors, with Benjamin Franklin as president.
- September 13 – Kalvária Banská Štiavnica in the Kingdom of Hungary is completed.
- October 27 – The Hōreki period begins in Japan.
- December 3 – Battle of Arnee in India (Second Carnatic War): A British East India Company-led force under Robert Clive defeats and routs a much larger Franco-Indian army under the command of Raza Sahib at Arni.
- In the University of Glasgow
- The Encyclopédie is first published.
- Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus publishes his Philosophia Botanica, the first textbook of descriptive systematic botanical taxonomy and the first appearance of his binomial nomenclature.
- Maria Theresa thaler minted; it becomes an international currency.
- 1751–1775 – 13% of appointees to audiencias in the Spanish Empire are Creoles.
- January 12 – Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies (d. 1825)
- February 20 – Johann Heinrich Voss, German poet (d. 1826)
- March 16 – James Madison, 4th President of the United States (d. 1836)
- May 24 – Charles Emmanuel IV of Savoy, King of Sardinia (d. 1819)
- June 4 – John Scott, 1st Earl of Eldon, Lord Chancellor of Great Britain (d. 1838)
- June 17 – Joshua Humphreys, American naval architect (d. 1838)
- July 11 – Caroline Matilda, British princess, queen consort of Denmark (d. 1775)
- July 30 (midnight) – Maria Anna Mozart ("Nannerl"), Austrian pianist, singer, composer and violinist, sister of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
- September 1 – Emanuel Schikaneder, German dramatist, actor and singer (d. 1812)
- October 30 – Richard Brinsley Sheridan, Irish dramatist and politician (d. 1816)
- date unknown
- January 17 – Tomaso Albinoni, Italian composer (b. 1671)
- January 20 – John Hervey, 1st Earl of Bristol, English politician (b. 1665)
- January 25 – Paul Dudley, Attorney-General of Massachusetts (b. 1675)
- February 5 – Henri François d'Aguesseau, Chancellor of France (b. 1668)
- March 25 – King Frederick I of Sweden (b. 1676)
- March 29 – Thomas Coram, English sea captain and philanthropist (b. c. 1668)
- March 31 – Frederick, Prince of Wales (b. 1707)
- April 19 – Peter Lacy, Irish-born Russian Field marshal (b. 1678)
- June 20 – Adriaan Valckenier, Dutch Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1737 to 1741 (b. 1695)
- August 30 – Christopher Polhem, Swedish scientist (b. 1661)
- October 22 – Prince William IV of Orange (b. 1711)
- October 26 – Philip Doddridge, English religious leader (b. 1702)
- December 12 – Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke, English statesman and philosopher (b. 1678)
- December 16 – Leopold II of Anhalt-Dessau, Prussian general (b. 1700)
- December 19 – Louise of Great Britain, queen of Frederick V of Denmark (b. 1724)