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Events from the year 1753 in Great Britain.
- 29 January - After a month's absence, Elizabeth Canning returns to her mother's home in London and claims that she was abducted. The following criminal trial causes uproar.
- 7 June - The British Museum is established by Act of Parliament.
- July - Parliament passes the Marriage Act requiring marriages to be performed by licensed ministers and the reading of banns of marriage.
- 7 July - Parliament passes the Jewish Naturalization Act as a measure to end discrimination against Jews, but widespread opposition leads to its repeal the following year.
- 8 March - William Roscoe, writer (died 1831)
- 27 March - Andrew Bell, educationist and priest (died 1832)
- 9 July - William Waldegrave, 1st Baron Radstock, Governor of Newfoundland (died 1825)
- 12 August - Thomas Bewick, wood engraver (died 1828)
- 10 September - John Soane, architect (died 1837)
- 22 November - Dugald Stewart, philosopher (died 1828)
- 3 December - Samuel Crompton, inventor (died 1827)
- 12 December - William Beechey, portrait-painter (died 1839)
- Edward Pigott, astronomer (died 1825)
- 11 January - Hans Sloane, physician and collector (born 1660, Ireland)
- 14 January - George Berkeley, philosopher (born 1685, Ireland)
- 7 June - Archibald Cameron of Locheil, last Jacobite to be executed for treason (born 1707)
- 27 September - Sir John Anstruther, 1st Baronet, Scottish politician (born c.1678)
- 15 December - Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington, architect (born 1694)
- 25 December - Godolphin Arabian, thoroughbred stallion (born c.1724)
- date unknown