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|Centuries:||17th century – 18th century – 19th century|
|Decades:||1720s 1730s 1740s – 1750s – 1760s 1770s 1780s|
|Years:||1753 1754 1755 – 1756 – 1757 1758 1759|
|1756 by topic:|
|Arts and Sciences|
|Archaeology – Architecture – Art – Literature (Poetry) – Music – Science|
|Canada – Great Britain –|
|Lists of leaders|
|Colonial governors – State leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2509|
|British Regnal year||29 Geo. 2 – 30 Geo. 2|
— to —丙子年十一月十一日
|- Vikram Samvat||1812–1813|
|- Shaka Samvat||1678–1679|
|- Kali Yuga||4857–4858|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||756–757|
|Japanese calendar||Hōreki 6
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 11 days|
|Minguo calendar||156 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2299|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 1756|
- January 16 – Treaty of Westminster signed between Great Britain and Prussia guaranteeing the neutrality of the German province of Hanover controlled by King George II of Great Britain.
- March 17 – St. Patrick's Day is celebrated in New York City for the first time (at the Crown and Thistle Tavern).
- April 12 – Seven Years' War: The French invade Minorca, at this time under British control.
- May 15 – Seven Years' War: The Seven Years' War formally begins when Great Britain declares war on France.
- May 20 – Seven Years' War – Battle of Minorca: The British fleet under John Byng is defeated by the French under Roland-Michel Barrin de La Galissonière.
- 20 June – A garrison of the British Army in India is imprisoned in the Black Hole of Calcutta.
- June 25 – The Marine Society is founded in London, the world's oldest seafarers' charity.
- June 29 – Seven Years' War – Siege of Fort St Philip at Port Mahon: The British garrison in Minorca surrenders to the French after two months' siege by Armand de Vignerot du Plessis.
- July 30 – Bartolomeo Rastrelli presents the newly built Catherine Palace to Empress Elizabeth and her courtiers.
- August 14 – Seven Years' War – French and Indian War: Fort Oswego falls to the French.
- August 29 – Frederick II of Prussia invades Saxony, beginning the Seven Years' War on the continent.
- October 1 – Seven Years' War – Battle of Lobositz: Frederick defeats an Austrian army under Marshal Maximilian Ulysses Count Browne.
- October 14 – An Agreement of Friendship and Trade is signed by the Sultan Osman III and the King Frederick V. Denmark has appointed an extraordinary representative to the Ottoman Empire.
- December – Seven Years' War – French and Indian War: Militias of the Royal Colony of North Carolina build a fort on the province's western frontier to protect it against natives allied with the French. The fort is named Fort Dobbs in honor of North Carolina Governor Arthur Dobbs, who persuaded the North Carolina legislature to fund the construction a year earlier.
- December 14 The play Douglas is performed for the first time in Edinburgh, with overwhelming success, in spite of the opposition of the local church presbytery, who summoned Alexander Carlyle to answer for having attended its representation. However, it fails in its early promise to set up a new Scottish dramatic tradition.
Date unknown 
- Frederick II of Prussia forces his country's peasants to grow the unpopular and obscure potato.
- The town of Gus-Khrustalny is established in Russia with the setting up of a crystal glass factory.
- First chocolate-candy factory begins operations in Germany.
- Leopold Mozart publishes his book on his method for learning to play the violin, Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule.
- January 19 – Guillaume-Antoine Olivier, French entomologist (d. 1814)
- January 27 – Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, German composer (d. 1791)
- February 6 – Aaron Burr, Vice President of the United States (d. 1836)
- March 3 – William Godwin, English writer (d. 1836)
- March 4 – Sir Henry Raeburn, Scottish painter (d. 1823)
- May 18 – Ignaz Aurelius Fessler, court councillor and minister to Alexander I (d. 1839)
- May 27 – Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria (d. 1825)
- June 6 – John Trumbull, American painter (d. 1843)
- June 20 – Joseph Martin Kraus, German-Swedish composer (d. 1792)
- July 7 – Gustaf Adolf Reuterholm, Swedish statesman (d. 1813)
- July 31 – Dheeran Chinnamalai, Tamil king (d. 1805)
- August 1 – Pierre Louis Prieur, French politician (d. 1827)
- August 29 – Heinrich Graf von Bellegarde, Austrian field marshal and statesman (d. 1845)
- September 7 – Willem Bilderdijk, Dutch author (d. 1831)
- October 28 – ALF, fictional alien
- November 3 – Pierre Laromiguière, French philosopher (d. 1837)
- January 18 – Francis George of Schönborn-Buchheim (b. 1682)
- February 25 – Eliza Haywood, English actress and writer (b. 1693)
- April 10 – Giacomo Antonio Perti, Italian composer (b. 1661)
- April 18 – Jacques Cassini, French astronomer (b. 1677)
- July 24 – George Vertue, English engraver and antiquary (b. 1684)
- October 26 – Roland-Michel Barrin de La Galissonière, governor of New France (b. 1693)
- October 28 – Charles Somerset, 4th Duke of Beaufort (b. 1709)
- December 8 – William Stanhope, 1st Earl of Harrington, English statesman and diplomat (b. c. 1690)
- date unknown – Bernard Accama, Dutch painter (b. 1697)
- Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 318. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
- "History". Marine Society. Retrieved 2012-01-06.
- "Danish Business Delegation to Turkey". Royal Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 11 December 2010. "Trade between our two countries can be dated centuries back. In 1756 Denmark and The Ottoman Empire signed a treaty on commerce and friendship, which paved the way for closer ties both human and commercial between our two people..."
- Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 114. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.