List of Atlantic hurricanes in the 18th century

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The List of Atlantic hurricanes in the 18th century encompasses all known Atlantic tropical cyclones from 1700 to 1799. While not all data for every storm that occurred is available, some parts of the coastline were populated enough to give data of hurricane occurrences.

1700–1724[edit]

Year Location Date Deaths Damage/Notes
1700 Barbados[1]
1700 South Carolina / Charleston September 14 [O.S. September 3] 98 A hurricane struck the South Carolina coastline while the ship the Scottish ship the Rising Sun was docked in Charleston harbor. The ships was thrust up on the beach, broke up and all aboard were drowned. The only surviving sailors from the ship had gone ashore earlier to look for provisions and ended up having to bury the dead on the beach the next day. The other ships docked there were also wrecked. Charleston was devastated and flooded by this ferocious hurricane. Known as the Rising Sun Hurricane of 1700[2]
1702 Barbados[1]
1703 Virginia, Maryland, New England coastline October 18–19 [O.S. October 7–8] N/A Great wind and flood damage; many ships were lost[3]
1703 England / British Isles December 7–8 [O.S. November 26–27] Many thousands Known as The Great Storm of 1703. Most powerful wind force ever experienced in modern England history and caused more death and destruction that any known storm before or after. One third of British Navy fleet sunk during this storm. Storm likely originated from an Atlantic based formed hurricane.[3]
1705 Havana, Cuba N/A Many were lost 4 ships lost
1706 New York, Connecticut October 13–15 [O.S. October 3–5] Strong wind and heavy rains reported in NY (14th) and CT (16th) Unusual and heavy flooding occurred In many areas in NY and CT [4]
1706 Off of Virginia coast November 6–7 [O.S. October 26–27] N/A Hurricane at sea. England bound fleet of ships from America was scattered by a raging hurricane at sea. Many had to return to Virginia for repairs, other ships were lost at sea. No landfall believed to be known.[4]
1707 St. Kitts and Nevis, Antigua[1] September 2 N/A Nevis was "nearly ruined", and several ships were wrecked off the coast of St. Kitts
1707 St. Augustine, Florida September 30 N/A Heavy flooding and damage
1708 Veracruz N/A 578 N/A
1712 Jamaica September 8 400 Many houses destroyed; perhaps occurred on 28 August [Julian calendar ?]
1713 Martinique, G­eloupe, St. Thomas, Puerto Rico[1] September 4–5, 6 100 in Martinique San Zacarias Hurricane, caused a storm surge in southern Puerto Rico.[5]
1713 South Carolina / Charleston, North Carolina, Virginia September 16–17 [O.S. September 5–6] Many Known as South Carolina Hurricane of 1713. Charleston town was once again inundated by the sea (see 1700). The death toll reportedly was significant from the high storm surge that washed in with this storm. On Sullivan's Island, "The new Look out made of wood, built eight square and eighty feet high, was blown down." In Charleston's harbor, all but one of the vessels were driven ashore and "all the front wall and mud parapet before Charlestown undermined and washed away" The two rivers on both sides of the town were connected for a period of unknown time during the storm. The storm was reportedly more violent north of Charleston suggesting landfall was made north of the town. The effects were most significant in Currituck county, North Carolina near the Virginia-North Carolina border, where the storm surge breached the Outer Banks and opened several inlets into the Currituck Sound. William Byrd, one of the commissioners who established the Virginia-North Carolina boundary, stated "There was no tide in Currituck until 1713, when a violent storm opened a new inlet five miles south of the old one. One of the new inlets carved out by the storm became the location where the Virginia-North Carolina line begins on the Atlantic coast.[6]
1714 Florida Keys Late June Many drowned Many ships sank
1714 G­eloupe August 13–14[1]
1714 Jamaica August 29[1]
1714 Cuba[1]
1715 Off of Florida east coast July 31 1000–2500 Seven days after departing from Havana, Cuba eleven of the twelve Spanish ships of this fleet were lost in a hurricane near present day Vero Beach. See 1715 Treasure Fleet.
1715 Mexico August 26[7]
1716 Massachusetts / Boston, Martha's Vineyard October 24–25 [O.S. October 13–14] Hurricane with strong winds and rains affecting Eastern Massachusetts, Boston and Martha's Vineyard. Maybe no direct landfall.[8]
1717 Alabama Late Summer Pelican Harbor on Dauphin Island was destroyed by shifting sands [9][10]
1718 Nevis September[1]
1720 Puerto Rico N/A 500 N/A
1722 Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Carolinas August 28 – September 3 280,[1] 400 [1] Passed south of Port Royal, which was devastated by a 16–18 foot storm surge. [2]
1722 Jamaica, Louisiana, South Carolina September 11,23-24 [O.S. September 1,12-13] 400 Great Louisana Hurricane of 1722. Moved through Lesser Antilles on September 11. This hurricane is the first tropical storm to strike the region for which there are adequate first-hand accounts and almost completely destroyed the city's fragile existing infrastructure. Storm made landfall in Louisiana on September 23 with 15 hours of hurricane winds and an 8-foot storm surge flooding. Hurricane force winds lasted 15 hours. In 1718, 3 feet (1m) high levees protected New Orleans from both river and tidal overflow (today they are 17 feet (5.2 m) high). The buildings in New Orleans suffered extensive destruction, though they were not of high grade construction having been hastily constructed when New Orleans was initially selected to be the capital of the Louisiana Company in 1717-18. The bayou between New Orleans and Biloxi was filled with two to three feet (0.6-0.9 m) of water as a result of the storm and all ships at port were destoyed. Rainfall and flooding were reported to have lasted for five days. This storm was responsible for moving Mobile from its old site 27 miles (43 km) north of the mouth of the Mobile River to its present-day site. This same storm likely re-curved northeast and headed into South Carolina as they reported three days of flooding rains in SC around the 27th.[11]
1724 Maryland / Chesapeake Bay, Virginia August 23 [O.S. August 12] N/A Known as the "Great Gust of 1724". Almost all tobacco and much of the corn crops were destroyed by this violent tropical storm, which struck Chesapeake Bay. Violent floods of rain and prodigious gust of wind were seen upon the James river. Some homes were wrecked and several vessels were driven ashore. Storm was likely followed by a second hurricane just five days later causing rain for many straight days that caused the Virginia floods of 1724.[12]
1724 Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Pennsylvania August 28 [O.S. August 17] Second of two hurricanes that passed through the area within 5 days. Another violent storm system came through affecting Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania with violent winds, flooding and rain. This system and The Great Gust of 1724 systems are among the most significant tropical storms to affect the Mid-Atlantic during the colonial period of the late 1600s and 1700s.[12]
1724 Hispaniola September 12 121 N/A

1725–1749[edit]

Year Location Date Deaths Damage/Notes
1725 Martinique[1]
1726 Jamaica November 2 18+ Devastated Port Royal, sinking some 50 ships. Observed based on damage information to be a very small hurricane, but very powerful.[13] Perhaps same as 22 October on Julian calendar.
1727 Rhode Island, Connecticut, eastern Massachusetts/Boston September 27 [O.S. September 16] Very strong hurricane caused considerable damage, uprooted many trees, damaged property and washed ships in port ashore. Center of the storm likely past over eastern Massachusetts. Severe destruction noted in Essex county.[14]
1728 Antigua August 19[1]
1728 Carolinas August N/A N/A
1729 Puerto Rico[7]
1730 Jamaica September 1 N/A One ship, including the ex-president of Panama, lost.
1731 Windward Passage June 24 1+ two ships destroyed
1731 Barbados[1]
1733 St. Kitts June 30[1] Several At least one ship wrecked
1733 Cuba, Bahamas, Florida Keys[1] July 15–16 56 N/A
1734 Jamaica September 1[1]
1737 St. Kitts, Montserrat, Dominican Republic September 9[1] Several people drowned Many ships destroyed
1738 Guadeloupe, St. Thomas, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic[1] August 30 N/A Santa Rosa Hurricane, caused damage to agriculture and to many homes in Puerto Rico. It is estimated that it entered Puerto Rico in the east and crossed the entire island, then passing on to the Dominican Republic.[5]
1740 Puerto Rico July 11–13[7]
1740 Puerto Rico[1] September 11–12 N/A 'Huricane San Judas Tadeo,[15] Two ships destroyed
1740 Louisiana September 23 N/A Destroyed town of La Balize
1742 Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico October 27–28 N/A Two ships lost
1743 Jamaica October 20 "Great number" N/A
1743 Philadelphia, Boston November 2 [16] Ben Franklin's ‘Eclipse Hurricane’ because it occurred during the night of a total lunar eclipse
1744 Jamaica October 31–November 1[1] 182 N/A
1745 Caribbean Islands[1]
1746 Caribbean Sea N/A N/A Thirteen ships destroyed
1747 Virginia September 15 50+ Indentured servant ship destroyed
1747 St. Christopher, Leeward Islands October 2[1]
1747 North Carolina, Massachusetts October 8 "Many" Seven ships destroyed
1747 Bermuda October 10 "Violent gale of wind"
1747 St. Kitts November 4[1] "Upwards of 20 sail of vessels lost"
1748 Off Virginia Capes September 11 "Dispersed fleet"
1748 Bermuda October 13 Up to £20,000 damage
1749 North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland October 18–19 [17] £30,000, severe flooding, high tides, and tree damage. Wind effects also recorded in New York City and Boston.

1750–1770[edit]

Year Date Location Deaths Damage/Notes
1750 August Bahamas[7]
1750 August 17 Offshore North Carolina N/A Four ships lost
1751 July 24 St. Kitts Entire crew one ship lost
1751 2 September unknown unknown [18]
1751 October Jamaica, Havana, Cuba[19]
1752 September 15 South Carolina 103 N/A
1752 September 26 Cuba N/A Sixteen ships lost
1752 October 22 Offshore Florida 7+ twelve ships lost
1754 September Santo Domingo[1] N/A twelve ships lost
1756 September 12 Martinique[1]
1757 August 11 Florida to Boston Rain for 3 days; great SW-NW-N gusts
1758 August 23 Barbados, South Carolina, United States[1]
1758 November 10 St. Kitts 200 N/A
1758 N/A St. Marks, Florida 40 N/A
1759 September Gulf of Mexico[1]
1760 September 7–8 Vera Cruz, Mexico[7]
1760 October 25 Barbuda 50 N/A
1761 September 20–23 Outer Banks of North Carolina N/A A "severe equinoctial storm" made a breach through the Outer Banks of North Carolina eight miles above its present entrance near haul-over, and it was named New Inlet. This inlet was subsequently closed in 1881, costing $600,000 in that year's dollars.[20][21]
1761 October 23–24 Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Eastern Massachusetts/Boston [22] Strong hurricane overnight. Strong wind damage. Said to be the worst storm in Boston since the great hurricane of 1727. Many buildings were destroyed and bridges washed out from Providence to Newport, Rhode Island and north to Boston and across Cape Cod
1765 July 31 Martinique, St. Eustatius, Guadeloupe[1]
1765 November 13–14 St. Domingo[1]
1766 July 17 Bahamas[7]
1766 August 13–14 Martinique[1] 440 N/A
1766 August 16 West of Jamaica[1]
1766 September 4 Galveston, Texas N/A Five ships were destroyed, but the crew and items were saved. A Spanish mission named Nuestra Senora De la Luz and the presidio San Augustine de Ahumado on the lower Trinity River was destroyed. Constance Bayou in Louisiana was named after one of the wrecked ships from this storm.[23]
1766 September 11 Virginia[1]
1766 September 13 St. Christopher, Montserrat N/A Destroyed half the town and many ships.
1766 September 21 St. Eustatius, Tortuga[1]
1766 October 6–8 Guadeloupe, Puerto Rico[1] N/A San Marcos Hurricane, passed first across Guadalupe, there it Sunk twelve slave ships, killing all aboard. Later it crossed Puerto Rico from south east to north west, it affected the entire island.[15]
1766 October 22–23 Northwest Florida[1] N/A Sunk one ship, killing the entire crew except for three.
1766 October 29 Havana[7]
1767 August Martinique 1600 "A powerful hurricane"
1767 September 21 Coastal North Carolina N/A Caused a number of vessels to be lost. Floods struck Virginia, with a mill entirely destroyed in Warwick county.[24]
1768 August 10 Grenada[1]
1768 October 15 Havana, Cuba[1] 1000 Destroyed 96 public buildings and 4048 houses. Appeared to pass over the island from west to east.[3]
1769 September 8 North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, New Jersey, New England coast [25] At least 6 Hurricane center was close to Williamsburg. Many old houses in eastern North Carolina and southeastern Virginia were destroyed, particularly around Williamsburg, York, Hampton, and Norfolk due to 13 hours of high winds from the northeast to northwest. Known as "The Great Chesapeake Bay Hurricane of 1769"
1769 September 25 – September 28 Northeast coast of Florida & Charleston, South Carolina N/A Approached Florida and may have hit St. Augustine, Florida on the 25th, but it turned northeastward, and hit near Charleston on the 28th. Damage was minimal in the Carolinas, but crop damage occurred in northeast Florida.
1770 June 6 Charleston, South Carolina[1]

1770s[edit]

Year Date Location Deaths Damage/Notes
1770 Late October New England coastline Connecticut to Maine [26] Strong winds, hail, high tides that caused major flooding. Highest tides reported since 1723 area harbor flooding
1771 May 23–24 Jamaica and Cuba [1] N/A N/A
1771 November 30-December 1 Vera Cruz, Mexico[7]
1772 August 1–7 Hispaniola, Cuba[19]
1772 28 August - 4 September Greater Antilles including Puerto Rico and Jamaica; Mobile, Alabama; New Orleans, Louisiana At least 280 Alexander Hamilton famously wrote an account on the storm in Saint Croix, which was later published in the American colonies; community leaders were impressed by his writings, and they raised a fund for Hamilton to receive an education in the colonies
many ships destroyed in Alabama
1772 September 1 North Carolina 50 14 vessels forced ashore
1772 Various Saint Kitts and Nevis "Several" Three hurricanes hit the island group during the year, one of which is mentioned above
1773 August 26 Virginia Unknown Damage to ships in the area
1773 September 13–14 Colombia[7]
1773 September 30 - October 2 Virginia Unknown Three days of rainfall across the region
1774 August 24–25 Virginia Unknown "August nor'easter" that caused two days of heavy rainfall
1774 September 3 Annapolis, Maryland Unknown The Maryland capitol building in Annapolis saw roof damage from a hurricane that began on September 3 and lasted about 24 hours.[27] A "stormy" northeast wind was seen in Westmoreland County Virginia, along with a "flood of rain."[28]
1774 October Havana, Cuba[19]
1775 Late July Caribbean Sea Unknown N/A
1775 August 28–29 Havana[7]
1775 August 29 - September 9 Outer Banks, Virginia, Newfoundland 4163 Known as The Independence Hurricane of 1775 or Newfoundland Hurricane of 1775. Strong winds in Virginia; a localized, storm surge is reported to have reached heights of between 20 and 30 feet in Newfoundland, destroying many English ships. At least 4000 people died off of Newfoundland, becoming Canada's deadliest natural disaster and the eighth deadliest Atlantic hurricane in history
1775 November 2 Caicos Islands 11 Several English warships lost
1776 June South coast of Cuba[19]
1776 June New Orleans, Louisiana[19]
1776 July 10 Virginia Unknown Affected a Revolutionary War battle in Virginia; it caused supply ships to sink in the Chesapeake Bay area, and resulted in moderate damage to the area.
1776 August Off northern coast of Cuba[19]
1776 September 6 to 12 Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe and Louisiana 6,000 An analysis by hurricane scholar Michael Chenoweth indicated the tropical cyclone was of at least hurricane strength, or with maximum sustained winds of at least 74 mph (119 km/h), when it struck Guadeloupe. The same analysis indicated the storm also affected Antigua and Martinique early in its duration, and later it struck Louisiana on September 12.[29] On Guadeloupe, the hurricane killed 6,000 people, more than any known hurricane before it and currently the seventh deadliest Atlantic hurricane on record.[30] The storm struck a large convoy of French and Dutch merchant ships, sinking or running aground 60% of the vessels. The ships were transporting goods to Europe.[31]
1777 June Florida Several One ship sunk; no one recovered
1777 August 26 Chesapeake Bay Unknown Hampered General Howe's march on Philadelphia. Caused Washington to seek refuge at Hermitage in Elkton, MD
1777 September 10 to 16 Central Atlantic, Pennsylvania Unknown September 10 - The Ariadne, Ruffel, from Dominica to London sunk, all hands saved. 5 others of the fleet missing. September 16 - Pre-empted Battle of the Clouds in Chester County, PA.
1777 October Oriente, Cuba and St. Dominigue[19]
1778 August 12–13 North Carolina, Mid-Atlantic/New England coastline Prevented a naval battle between the British and French in the Revolutionary War, causing them to separate as the hurricane moved up the coast
1778 August–September Havana, Cuba[19]
1778 October 28 Cuba Several N/A
1778 November 1 Cape Cod, Massachusetts 50-70 Possibly related to the previous storm
1779[1] May 25–26 Jamaica N/A N/A
1779 August 18 Havana, Cuba, Louisiana Unknown All but one warship in a Spanish fleet were sunk off the coast. Ships in the New Orleans harbor were pushed well inland, causing heavy damage. William Dunbar first theorized from this system that a hurricane revolved around a vortex in the center.
1779 August 28 Martinique "Many" N/A
1779 December 3 Atlantic coast 120 N/A

1780s[edit]

The 1780 Atlantic hurricane season was extraordinarily destructive, and was the deadliest Atlantic hurricane season in recorded history with over 25,000 deaths. Four different hurricanes, three in October and one in June, caused at least 1,000 deaths each; this event has never been repeated and only in the 1893 and 2005 seasons were there two such hurricanes. The season also held the deadliest Atlantic tropical cyclone of all time.

Year Date Location Deaths Damage/Notes
1781 August 1 Jamaica N/A Many ships washed ashore
1781 August 23 New Orleans, Louisiana N/A N/A
1781 Unknown Offshore Florida 2000 N/A
1782 July Havana, Cuba[19]
1782 September 16 Central Atlantic coast 3000 The Central Atlantic hurricane of 1782 was a hurricane that hit the fleet of Admiral Thomas Graves as it sailed across the North Atlantic in September 1782. It is believed to have killed some 3,500 people.
1783 September 19 North Carolina N/A 3 ships sunk
1783 October 7–9 South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia N/A Charleston saw excessive rain and wind with the cyclone. Winds shifted from northwest to northeast as the storm passed offshore.[32] Extensive damage was seen in North Carolina. Richmond saw violent northeast gusts for 24 hours, but no damage. Norfolk and Portsmouth reported a "25 foot tide" which caused damage
1783 October 18–19 New Jersey, Rhode Island, Connecticut [33] Heavy rains and winds in New Brunswick, NJ and New Haven, CT. Brought snowfall to western Connecticut and Vermont.
1784 June Florida Straits
1784 July 30 Jamaica 2 N/A
1784 Unknown Curaçao N/A Many ships damaged or destroyed
1785 August 24–29 Greater Antilles including Jamaica 142 N/A
1785 September 1 Delaware 181 One of the few hurricanes on record in the state
1785 September 23–24 Mid-Atlantic states N/A Led to the "highest tide ever before known in Norfolk." It struck the lower Chesapeake Bay. Portsmouth experienced a strong northeast to northwest gale for 3 days. The storm in Virginia was noted in both the Virginia Gazette of October 1, and the New Jersey Gazette of October 1 (from Ludlum 1963 p. 30). The Annual Register the next year reported that several ships had been driven ashore by the tide and the wind, with a total damage estimated at around £30,000.
1785 September 25 Puerto Rico N/A San Lupo Hurricane - devastated agricultural fields. Governor Juan Dabán visited the islands affected area to inspect and help with the damages; it was the first time a governor of Puerto Rico did that after a Hurricane.[34]
1786 September 2 Barbados "Several" Several houses destroyed
1786 October 5 Eastern Virginia N/A Heavy rainfall accompanied the storm. According to George Washington, tides were "occasionally high" at Mount Vernon, with "high freshes." James Madison at Montpelier saw the Rapidan River overflow its banks. The center may have passed very near his location, as the winds shifted from southeast to southwest.
1786 October 20 Jamaica 7 N/A
1787 September 2–4 Belize, Vera Cruz, Mexico 100 It has been identified as ‘Event 6’ in Belizean sedimentary records by McCloskey and Keller.[35] Several injuries were caused by this hurricane in Vera Cruz.[36]
1787 September 19 Georgia, South Carolina 23 A storm moved just offshore the Georgia and South Carolina coastline to lead to a storm surge that caused 23 people to perish, as well as flooding and crop damage between Savannah and Georgetown.[32]
1787 September 23 Honduras 100 N/A
1788 July 24 Mid-Atlantic States N/A George Washington reported from Mount Vernon a "very high northeast wind" the previous night, which sank ships and blew down trees. A "more violent and severe a hurricane than for many years." Madison at Montpelier reports a "great wind and rain." According to the Philadelphia Independent Gazette on August 8, the storm in Norfolk began from the northeast at 5 p.m. on the 23rd, then blew a "perfect hurricane" from the south at 12:30 a.m.. The tide was lower than in 1785. Alexandria also saw the winds switch from east-northeast to south, which caused the highest known tide in the Potomac (from Ludlum 1963, p. 30-31).
1788 August 14–19 Martinique, Dominica, Bahamas, New England 600-700 N/A
1789 August 19 New Jersey, New England N/A Heavy damage

1790s[edit]

Year Date Location Deaths Damage/Notes
1791 June 21–22 Cuba 3000 Caused crop damage and animal deaths
1791 Unknown Southern Texas N/A Flooded Padre Island and the mainland nearby. A herd of 50,000 cattle belonging to a Spanish cattle baron drowned in the storm surge
1791 October 25 Puerto Rico[7]
1792 August 1 Lesser Antilles N/A Several ships destroyed
1792 October Havana, Cuba[19]
1793 August 13 Virgin Islands 28 Moved slowly through the area
1793 August Louisiana[7] N/A Caused crop damage and minor flooding
1794[1] May 28 Jamaica N/A N/A
1794 June 27 Jamaica N/A One ship destroyed in a tropical storm
1794 July 4 Mid-Atlantic states N/A Reported at Annapolis by William Faris in his diary. On the night of the 5th, it "raind and Blowd very Hard" (sic) all night. It finally cleared out between 10 and 11 am on the 6th.
1794 Late July Jamaica "Heavy deaths" N/A
1794 August 9–10 Havana[7]
1794 August 27–31 Cuba and Louisiana 100+ In Louisiana, heavy flooding, high winds, crop damage, and unusually large hail occurred
1794 Early October Northeastern Florida N/A Caused beach erosion and damage
1794 October 26 Mid-Atlantic states N/A Caused 3.5 inches (89 mm) of rain at Madison's Montpelier estate. While the wind there was "brisk" on the morning on the 26th, Annapolis reported that "it Blow'd very Hard a near Hurrican and rained all night" from the 26th into the 27th.
1795 July 20 New Orleans[7]
1795 August 2 North Carolina N/A Several Spanish ships lost; brought heavy rain through the mid-Atlantic, disrupting mail service and damaging crops; at Annapolis, rain set it on the afternoon of the 2nd, before it escalated later in the day, when it "Blow'd a Harrican." Trees were levelled and the tide was so high that "one could not get to the Market House without a Boat." Vessels were driven ashore by the tempest (from the diary of William Faris).
1795 August 12 North Carolina N/A Considered a major hurricane, caused additional flooding and crop damage after the previous storm; the damage could be "Modestly estimated at a year's rent", quoted by Thomas Jefferson. The "powerful torrent" of rain in Petersburg caused creeks to rise higher than noted in the previous 70 years (North Carolina Journal). Winds were gusty at Farmville, where a "great fresh" was reported. Annapolis reported strong winds and rains on August 13 as well.
1796 August 26–27 New Orleans[7]
1796 October 2 Pinar del Río, Cuba, Bahamas N/A Caused shipping delays
1797 September 5 North Carolina N/A One ship sunk
1797 October 15–19 Bahamas and South Carolina "Many" Several ships lost
1799 September 23 Jamaica 27 Remained offshore, but rain, flooding, and winds were severe
1799 October Oriente, Cuba[19]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an Chenoweth (2006). "A Reassessment of Historical Atlantic Basin Tropical Cyclone Activity, 1700-1855" (PDF). NOAA. Retrieved 2007-07-02. 
  2. ^ Early American hurricanes 1492-1870, David Ludlum, pg 42
  3. ^ a b Early American hurricanes 1492-1870, David Ludlum, pg 19
  4. ^ a b Early American hurricanes 1492-1870, David Ludlum, pg 20
  5. ^ a b Mújica-Baker, Frank. "Huracanes y Tormentas que han afectadi a Puerto Rico". Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, Agencia Estatal para el manejo de Emergencias y Administracion de Desastres. p. 11. Retrieved August 30, 2010. 
  6. ^ Early American hurricanes 1492-1870, David Ludlum, pg 43
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Ricardo Garcia-Herrera, Luis Gimeno, Pedro Ribera and Emiliano Hernandez (2004-11-29). "New records of Atlantic hurricanes from Spanish documentary sources". Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Retrieved 2012-02-10. 
  8. ^ Early American hurricanes, 1492-1870, pg 20
  9. ^ Patrick, Monica. "History of Dauphin Island, Alabama". Travel Tips. USA Today. Retrieved November 3, 2012. 
  10. ^ Kennedy, Jo M. "Building the Fort - 1717". Dauphin Island AL: French Possession 1699-1763. Dauphin Island, AL Archive of Historical Data, Books, Maps And Other Materials. Retrieved Nov 3, 2012. 
  11. ^ Early American hurricanes 1492-1870, David Ludlum, pg 60
  12. ^ a b Early American hurricanes 1492-1870, David Ludlum, pg 21
  13. ^ The Nautical magazine - Google Boeken. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-08-15. 
  14. ^ Early American hurricanes 1492-1870, David Ludlum, pg 21-22
  15. ^ a b Mújica-Baker, Frank. "Huracanes y Tormentas que han afectadi a Puerto Rico". Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, Agencia Estatal para el manejo de Emergencias y Administracion de Desastres. p. 8. Retrieved August 30, 2010. 
  16. ^ Early American hurricanes 1492-1870, David Ludlum, pg 22
  17. ^ Early American hurricanes 1492-1870, David Ludlum, pg 23
  18. ^ "Hurricanes in Jamaica, West Indies". Monthly Weather Review 28 (12): 550. 1900. Bibcode:1900MWRv...28Q.550.. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1900)28[550a:HIJWI]2.0.CO;2Hurricanes in Jamaica, West Indies 
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Johnson, Sherry (2011). Climate & Catastrophe in Cuba and the Atlantic World in the Age of Revolution. University of North Carolina Press. pp. 203–206. ISBN 978-0-8078-3493-0. 
  20. ^ Wilmington District News 20 (6). United States Army Corps of Engineers. June 2000. p. 3. 
  21. ^ Wilmington Chamber of Commerce (N.C.) (1872). Wilmington, North Carolina: Past, Present, and Future. History of Its Harbor, with Detailed Reports of the Work for Improving and Restoring the Same, Now Being Conducted by the U.S. Government. Resources and Advantages as an Entrepot for Western Cities. Harbor of Refuge, and Coaling Depot for the Navy and Merchant Marine. J. A. Engelhard. p. 25. 
  22. ^ Early American hurricanes 1492-1870, David Ludlum, pg 24
  23. ^ Weddle, Robert S. "Gulf of Mexico". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 2012-01-01. 
  24. ^ Virginia Gazette (August 6, 1767). "Virginia Gazette". p. 2. 
  25. ^ Early American hurricanes 1492-1870, David Ludlum, pg 25
  26. ^ Early American hurricanes 1492-1870, David Ludlum, pg 26
  27. ^ Anderson, Elizabeth B. (October 2003). Annapolis: A Walk Through History. Cornell Maritime Press/Tidewater Publications. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-87033-546-4. 
  28. ^ Philip Vickers Fithian (December 1, 1978). Journal & Letters of Philip Vickers Fithian. University of Virginia Press. pp. 183–184. ISBN 978-0-8139-0079-7. 
  29. ^ Michael Chenoweth (2006). "A Re-assessment of Historical Atlantic Basin Tropical Cyclone Activity, 1700-1855". NOAA. Retrieved 2007-02-12. 
  30. ^ Edward N. Rappaport, Jose Fernandez-Partagas, and Jack Beven (1997). "The Deadliest Atlantic Tropical Cyclones, 1492-1996". NOAA. Retrieved 2007-01-02. 
  31. ^ David Longshore (2008). Encyclopedia of Hurricanes, Typhoons, and Cyclones. Checkmark Books. p. 297. ISBN 0-8160-7409-7. 
  32. ^ a b Walter J. Fraser, Jr. (2006). Lowcountry Hurricanes: Three Centuries of Storms at Sea and Ashore. University of Georgia Press. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-8203-2866-9. 
  33. ^ Early American hurricanes 1492-1870, David Ludlum, pg 29
  34. ^ Mújica-Baker, Frank. "Huracanes y Tormentas que han afectadi a Puerto Rico". Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, Agencia Estatal para el manejo de Emergencias y Administracion de Desastres. p. 9. Retrieved August 30, 2010. 
  35. ^ McCloskey, T. A.; Keller, G. (2009). "5000 year sedimentary record of hurricane strikes on the central coast of Belize". Quaternary International 195 (1–2): 53–68. Bibcode:2009QuInt.195...53M. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2008.03.003. 
  36. ^ Alavarez, Humberto Bravo, Rodolfo Sosa Echeverria, Pablo Sanchez Alavarez, and Arturo Butron Silva (2006-06-22). "Riesgo Quimico Asociado a Fenominos Hidrometeorologicos en el Estado de Verzacruz". Inundaciones 2005 en el Estado de Veracruz. Universidad Veracruzana. p. 317. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 

External links[edit]