1795 in science
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- December 13 – A meteorite falls to earth at Wold Newton, East Riding of Yorkshire, England, the first to be recognised in modern times.
- The 18-year-old Carl Friedrich Gauss develops the basis for the method of least squares analysis.
- The British Royal Navy makes the use of lemon juice mandatory to prevent scurvy, largely due to the influence of Gilbert Blane.
- April 7 – The gram is decreed in France to be equal to "the absolute weight of a volume of water equal to the cube of the hundredth part of the metre, at the temperature of melting ice."
- Georges Cuvier identifies the fossilised bones of a huge animal found in the Netherlands in 1770 as belonging to an extinct reptile.
- November 30 – Joseph Bramah is granted a British patent for hydraulic machinery, notably the hydraulic press.
- Johann Matthäus Bechstein publishes his treatise on songbirds Naturgeschichte der Stubenvögel ("Natural History of Cage Birds") in Gotha.
- Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire publishes "Histoire des Makis, ou singes de Madagascar", introducing his theory of the unity of organic composition.
- Leonhard Euler's Letters to a German Princess, On Different Subjects in Physics and Philosophy are first translated into English by Scottish minister Henry Hunter, targeted at women, whom Hunter felt Euler intended to educate.
- December 8 – Peter Andreas Hansen, Danish astronomer (died 1874)
- December 21
- March 21 – Giovanni Arduino, Italian geologist (born 1714)
- July 3 – Antonio de Ulloa, Spanish explorer (born 1716)
- June 9 – François Chopart, French surgeon (born 1743)
- June 24 – William Smellie, Scottish naturalist (born 1740)
- October 1 – Robert Bakewell, English agriculturalist and geneticist (born 1725)
- Not published until 1809.
- Bown, Stephen R. (2003). Scurvy: How a Surgeon, a Mariner and a Gentleman Solved the Greatest Medical Mystery of the Age of Sail. Penguin Books Australia. p. 222.
- "Decree on weights and measures". 1795. Archived from the original on 24 September 2008. Retrieved 2 October 2008. "Gramme, le poids absolu d'un volume d'eau pure égal au cube de la centième partie du mètre , et à la température de la glace fondante"
- McNeill, Ian (1972). Hydraulic Power. London: Longman. ISBN 0-582-12797-1.
- Goodwin, Gordon (1891). "Hunter, Henry". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography 28. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
- Klyve, Dominic (Spring 2011). "Euler's Letters to a German Princess:Betrayal and Translation". Opusculum 3 (1). Retrieved 2013-10-21.