1798 in Australia
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- Governor of New South Wales – John Hunter
- Lieutenant-Governor of Norfolk Island – Philip Gidley King
- Inspector of Public Works – Richard Atkins
- 2 January – George Bass sights Wilsons Promontory
- 26 January – The koala and lyrebird observed by John Price on an expedition led by John Wilson
- 12 February – Matthew Flinders explores the Furneaux Islands
- 25 February – John Hunter names Bass Strait in honour of George Bass
- 29 April – There is a mutiny aboard HMS Bounty, William Bligh and crew members loyal to him are cast adrift.
- 14 May – HMS Nautilus arrives in Sydney, carrying missionaries from the London Missionary Society
- 1 October – Sydney's first church St Philip's is destroyed by fire
- 7 October – George Bass and Matthew Flinders leave Sydney to explore Van Diemen's Land on the Norfolk
- 7 October – St Philip's Church founded in Sydney, completed in 1809
- 8 November – Nauru discovered by John Fearn
- 9 December – Bass and Flinders confirm the existence of the Bass Strait
- 22 December – Norfolk enters the Derwent River
- 25 December – George Bass climbs Mount Wellington
- Barker, Anthony (1996). What Happened When. St Leonards: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 978-1-86373-986-3.
- National Library of Australia. "The World Upside Down: Australia 1788 – 1830". Archived from the original on 20 March 2007. Retrieved 9 February 2007.