1801 in Australia
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- 14 September – John Macarthur takes part in a duel with his commanding officer, Lieutenant Colonel William Paterson. Paterson is severely wounded in the shoulder, and Macarthur is arrested the next day. Governor King offers to release him on Norfolk Island but Macarthur refuses and is sent to England to be court martialled.
Exploration and settlement
- January - Brig Harbinger, under John Black, is the second vessel to sail through Bass Strait on route to Port Jackson
- 27 May – The French cartographic expedition of Nicolas Baudin sights Cape Leeuwin.
- 6 December – Matthew Flinders reaches Cape Leeuwin on the HMS Investigator and proceeds to make a survey along the southern coast of the Australian mainland.
- 21 January – John Batman, founder of Victoria (died 1839)
- 8 June – Thomas Vasse (born 1774), French sailor