1805 in Australia
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- Governor of New South Wales – Captain Philip King
- Lieutenant-Governor of Southern Van Diemen's Land – David Collins
- Lieutenant-Governor of Northern Van Diemen's Land – William Paterson
- 24 May – William Bligh is appointed the fourth Governor of New South Wales; he arrives at Port Jackson to replace King on 6 August 1806.
- 8 June – John Macarthur returned to New South Wales as a civilian settler; the British Government accepted his resignation from the New South Wales Corps and approved his return.
Exploration and settlement
- 15 February – Governor King instructed (apparently reluctantly) a surveyor to measure 5,000 acres (20 km²) for John Macarthur at Cowpastures, where Macarthur had been promised land by the Secretary of State for War and the Colonies, Lord Camden. Macarthur named his property Camden Park in honour of his sponsor.