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|Centuries:||18th century – 19th century – 20th century|
|Decades:||1770s 1780s 1790s – 1800s – 1810s 1820s 1830s|
|Years:||1803 1804 1805 – 1806 – 1807 1808 1809|
|1806 in topic:|
|Archaeology – Architecture – Art – Literature – Music|
|Australia – Canada – France – Germany – Mexico – Philippines – South Africa – US – UK|
|Rail Transport – Science – Sports|
|Lists of leaders|
|Colonial Governors – State leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2559|
|British Regnal year||46 Geo. 3 – 47 Geo. 3|
— to —丙寅年十一月廿二日
|- Vikram Samvat||1862–1863|
|- Shaka Samvat||1728–1729|
|- Kali Yuga||4907–4908|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||806–807|
|Japanese calendar||Bunka 3
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 12 days|
|Minguo calendar||106 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2349|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 1806|
- January 1 – Kingdom of Bavaria established by Napoleon.
- January 5 – The body of Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, lies in state in the Painted Hall of the Greenwich Hospital prior to his funeral.
- January 8 – Cape Colony becomes a British colony.
- January 9 – Lord Nelson is given a state funeral at St Paul's Cathedral, attended by the Prince of Wales.
- January 10 – The Dutch in Cape Town surrender to the British.
- January 19 – The British occupy the Cape of Good Hope.
- January 23 – Grenville succeeds William Pitt the Younger as wartime Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, upon Pitt's death this day amidst worsening health caused by the stresses of the Napoleonic Wars.
- February 6 – The Royal Navy gains a victory off Santo Domingo (see Action of 6 February 1806).
- March 23 – After traveling through the Louisiana Purchase and reaching the Pacific Ocean, explorers Lewis and Clark and their Corps of Discovery begin their journey home.
- March 28 – Washington College (now Washington & Jefferson College) is chartered by the Pennsylvania General Assembly.
- March 29 – Construction is authorized of the National Road (the first United States federal highway).
- April 8 – Stephanie de Beauharnais, adopted daughter of Napoleon Bonaparte, marries Prince Karl Ludwig Friedrich of Baden.
- May 30 – Andrew Jackson kills a man in a duel after the man had accused Jackson's wife of bigamy.
- June 5 – Louis Bonaparte is appointed as King of Holland by his brother, Emperor Napoleon I.
- July 4 – Battle of Maida: Britain defeats the French in Calabria. The legendary Irish Rover sets sail from the Cove of Cork, Ireland for New York City.
- July 10 – Vellore Mutiny, the first mutiny by Indian sepoys against the British East India Company.
- July 15 – Pike expedition: Near St. Louis, Missouri, United States Army Lieutenant Zebulon Pike leads an expedition from Fort Bellefontaine to explore the west.
- July 23 – A British expeditionary force of 1,700 men landed on the left bank of the Río de la Plata and invested Buenos Aires.
- August – English seal hunter Abraham Bristow discovers the Auckland Islands.
- August 6 – Francis II, the last Holy Roman Emperor, abdicates, thus ending the Holy Roman Empire after about a millennium.
- September – France invades Prussia. Prussia declares war on France, and is joined by Saxony and other minor German states.
- September 23 – The Lewis and Clark Expedition reaches St. Louis, Missouri, ending a successful exploration of the Louisiana Territory and the Pacific Northwest.
- October 14 – Battle of Jena-Auerstädt: Napoleon defeats the Prussian army of Prince Hohenlohe at Jena while Marshal Davout defeats the main Prussian army under the Duke of Brunswick, who is killed.
- October 17 – Emperor Jacques I of Haiti (Jean-Jacques Dessalines) is assassinated at the Pont-Rouge, Haiti, and Alexandre Pétion becomes first President of the Republic of Haiti.
- October 24 – French forces enter Berlin.
- October 30 – Capitulation of Stettin: Believing themselves massively outnumbered, the 5,300-man garrison at Stettin in Prussia surrenders to a much smaller French force without a fight.
- November – Napoleon declares a Continental Blockade against the British.
- November 15 – Pike expedition: During his second exploratory expedition, Lieutenant Zebulon Pike sees a distant mountain peak while near the Colorado foothills of the Rocky Mountains (later named Pikes Peak in his honor).
- November 24 – The last major Prussian field force, under Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, surrenders to the French near Lübeck. Frederick William III has by this time fled to Russia.
- November 28 – French troops enter Warsaw.
- December 26 – 1806 Battles of Pultusk and Golymin. Battle of Pultusk: Russian forces under General Bennigsen narrowly escape from a direct confrontation with Napoleon, who goes into winter quarters. Battle of Golymin: Russian forces under General Golitsyn fight a successful rearguard action against French forces under Marshall Murat.
Date unknown 
- Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin, removes the Elgin Marbles from the Parthenon in Athens.
- Annual British iron production reaches 260,000 tons.
- January 1 – Lionel Kieseritzky, Baltic German chess player (d. 1853)
- January 27 – Juan Crisóstomo Arriaga, Spanish composer (d. 1826)
- February 22 – Józef Kremer, Polish messianic philosopher (d. 1875)
- March 6 – Elizabeth Barrett Browning, English poet (d. 1861)
- March 12 – Jane Pierce, First Lady of the United States (d. 1863)
- March 21 – Benito Juárez, Mexican statesman and folk hero (d. 1872)
- April 3 – Ivan Kireevsky, Russian literary critic and philosopher (d. 1856)
- April 6 – Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl, German scholar (d. 1876)
- April 9 – Isambard Kingdom Brunel, British engineer (d. 1859)
- May 2 – Catherine Labouré, French visionary and saint (d. 1876)
- May 20 – John Stuart Mill, British philosopher (d. 1873)
- June 12 – John Augustus Roebling, German-born engineer (d. 1869)
- June 28 – Napoleon Coste, French guitarist and composer (d. 1883)
- July 5 – James Dawson, Aboriginal Guardian (d. 1900)
- September 12 – Andrew Hull Foote, American admiral (d. 1863)
- October 3 – Oliver Cowdery, American religious leader (d. 1850)
- December 11 – Otto Wilhelm Hermann von Abich, German geologist (d. 1886)
Date unknown 
- January 23 – William Pitt the Younger, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1759)
- February 2 – Rétif de la Bretonne, French writer (b. 1734)
- February 16 – Franz von Weyrother, Austrian general (b. 1755)
- February 19 – Elizabeth Carter, English writer (b. 1717)
- February 20 – Lachlan McIntosh, Scottish-born American military and political leader (b. 1725)
- March 23 – George Pinto English composer (b. 1785)
- March 30 – Georgiana Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire (b. 1757)
- April 9 – William V of Orange (b. 1748)
- April 22 – Pierre-Charles Villeneuve, French admiral (stabbed) (b. 1763)
- May 9 – Robert Morris (financier), Financier of the American Revolution (b. 1734)
- May 24 – John Campbell, 5th Duke of Argyll, British field marshal (b. 1723)
- June 23 – Mathurin Jacques Brisson, French naturalist (b. 1723)
- July 10 – George Stubbs, English painter (b. 1724)
- July 11 – James Smith, American signer of the United States Declaration of Independence
- August 10 – Michael Haydn, Austrian composer (b. 1737)
- August 22 – Jean-Honoré Fragonard, French painter (b. 1742)
- August 23 – Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, French physicist (b. 1736)
- September 9 – William Paterson, signer of the United States Constitution, Governor of New Jersey (b. 1745)
- October 9 – Benjamin Banneker, American astronomer and surveyor (b. 1731)
- October 10 – Louis Ferdinand of Prussia, German prince (killed in battle) (b. 1772)
- October 25 – Henry Knox, Secretary of War under George Washington (b. 1750)
- November 23 – Roger Newdigate, British politician (b. 1719)
- December 22 – William Vernon, American merchant (b. 1719)
Date unknown 
- Hibbert, Christopher Nelson: A Personal History (1994) p. 382
- Coleman, Helen Turnbull Waite (1956). Banners in the Wilderness: The Early Years of Washington and Jefferson College. University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 210. OCLC 2191890.
- Mawar, Granville (1999). Ahab's Trade: The Saga of South Seas Whaling. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-22809-0.
- Jones, A. G. E. (1970). "Captain Abraham Bristow and the Auckland Islands" (PDF). Notes and Queries 17 (10): 369–371. doi:10.1093/nq/17.10.369. Retrieved 2011-12-14.