1806 in Australia
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- Governor of New South Wales – Captain Philip King (until 12 August), then Captain William Bligh
- Lieutenant-Governor of Southern Van Diemen's Land – David Collins
- Lieutenant-Governor of Northern Van Diemen's Land – William Paterson
- 5 August – Captain William Bligh arrives in Sydney to take over the governorship.
- 12 August – Governor King boards HMS Buffalo for his return to England, and Bligh's commission is formally read.
Exploration and settlement
- Governor King estimated that 280 men were employed along the Australian coast in sealing and fishing.
- Matthew Flinders completes the first circumnavigation of the continent.