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|Centuries:||18th century – 19th century – 20th century|
|Decades:||1770s 1780s 1790s – 1800s – 1810s 1820s 1830s|
|Years:||1806 1807 1808 – 1809 – 1810 1811 1812|
|1809 in topic:|
|Archaeology – Architecture – Art – Literature – Music|
|Australia – Canada – France – Germany – Mexico – Philippines – South Africa – US – UK|
|Rail Transport – Science – Sports|
|Lists of leaders|
|Colonial Governors – State leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2562|
|British Regnal year||49 Geo. 3 – 50 Geo. 3|
— to —己巳年十一月廿五日
|- Vikram Samvat||1865–1866|
|- Shaka Samvat||1731–1732|
|- Kali Yuga||4910–4911|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||809–810|
|Japanese calendar||Bunka 6
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 12 days|
|Minguo calendar||103 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2352|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 1809|
- January 5 – The Treaty of the Dardanelles between the United Kingdom and the Ottoman Empire is concluded.
- January 10 – Peninsular War: French Marshal Jean Lannes begins the Siege of Zaragoza.
- January 16 – Peninsular War: Battle of Corunna in Galicia (Spain): The British (under General Sir John Moore, who is killed) resist an attempt by the French (under Marshal Soult) to prevent them embarking.
- February 3 – The Illinois Territory is created.
- February 8 – Franz I of Austria declares war on France.
- February 11 – Robert Fulton patents the steamboat in the United States.
- February 17 – Miami University (Ohio) is established on the township of land required to be set aside for it under the conditions of the Miami Purchase in 1794.
- February 20
- February 25 – Battle of Valls: Spanish forces are defeated in Catalonia by Marshal Laurent Gouvion Saint-Cyr.
- March 1 – Embargo Act of 1807 is repealed in the United States; the Non-Intercourse Act replaces it.
- March 4 – James Madison succeeds Thomas Jefferson as the President of the United States.
- March 13 – A military coup ousts Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden; he is confined in Gripsholm Castle.
- March 29
- At the Diet of Porvoo, Finland's four Estates pledge allegiance to Alexander I of Russia, commencing the secession of the future Grand Principality of Finland from Sweden. The Emperor in return, promises to retain and uphold former laws and privileges as well as the dominant Lutheran religion. His pledge is later interpreted by the Finns as a confirmation of constitutional laws, which had, effectively, established Finland as a separate state in real union with the Russia.
- King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden abdicates and is later exiled.
- Peninsular War
- April 9 – Tiroleans rise under the command of Andreas Hofer against French and Bavarian occupation.
- April 10 – Napoleonic Wars: The War of the Fifth Coalition begins when forces of the Austrian Empire invade Bavaria.
- April 14 – Battle of Abensberg, Bavaria: Napoleon I defeats Austria.
- April 18 – The 2,000 Guineas Stakes horse race is first run in England.
- April 19 – Battle of Raszyn: The armies of Austria are defeated by the Duchy of Warsaw as a part of the War of the Fifth Coalition.
- April 22 – Battle of Eckmühl: French troops under Napoleon I and Marshal Davout defeat the Austrians under Archduke Charles.
- May 5
- May 10 – Gustav IV Adolf is officially deposed from the Swedish throne by the Riksdag of the Estates.
- May 10–11 – Peninsular War: Battle of Grijó: the Anglo-Portuguese Army commanded by Sir Arthur Wellesley defeats the French army commanded by Marshal Soult in Portugal.
- May 12 – Peninsular War: Second Battle of Porto: the Anglo-Portuguese Army commanded by Wellesley drives the French army commanded by Marshal Soult out of Porto and forces them to retreat from the country.
- May 17 – Napoleon I of France orders the annexation of the Papal States to the French Empire. When he announces that the Pope's secular power has ended, the Pope excommunicates him.
- May 21 – Battle of Aspern-Essling: Austrian troops under Archduke Karl beat the French under Napoleon in a hard fought battle.
- May 24 – Dartmoor Prison opens in England to house French prisoners of war.
- June 6 – Sweden promulgates a new Instrument of Government, which restores political power to the Riksdag of the Estates after authoritarian rule since 1772. On the same day, Duke Charles (uncle of the deposed king Gustav IV Adolf) is elected King under the name Charles XIII.
- June 7 – Shoja Shah of Afghanistan signs a treaty with the British. Only weeks later, he is succeeded by Mahmud Shah.
- July 5–July 6 – Battle of Wagram: Napoleon defeats the Austrians.
- July 6 – French troops arrest Pope Pius VII and take him to Liguria.
- July 8-9 – Finnish War: The Swedish archipelago fleet defeats the Russians in the naval battle of Porkala
- July 10 – French Marshal Marmont engages in the inconclusive Battle of Znaim against the Austrians.
- July 16 – The city of La Paz (current Bolivia) declares its independence from the Spanish Crown and forms the Junta Tuitiva, the first independent government in Spanish America, led by Pedro Domingo Murillo.
- July 28 – Peninsula War: Battle of Talavera: Sir Arthur Wellesley's British, Portuguese and Spanish army defeats a French force.
- July 30 – Walcheren Campaign: A British invasion army lands on Walcheren.
- August 8 – Seventy disciples of Vilna Gaon arrive in Palestine.
- August 10 – Ecuador declares independence from Spain.
- August 11
- September 17 – The Peace of Hamina is signed between Russia and Sweden in the Finnish War. The territory to become the Grand Principality of Finland is ceded to Russia by the Treaty of Fredrikshamn.
- September 18 – A new theatre to hold the Royal Opera House opens in London to replace the first, burnt down in a fire in 1808. The price increases lead to the Old Price Riots which last for 64 days.
- October 8 – Prince Klemens von Metternich becomes Austrian foreign minister.
- October 11 – Along the Natchez Trace in Tennessee, explorer Meriwether Lewis dies under mysterious circumstances at an inn called Grinder's Stand.
- October 14 – The Treaty of Schoenbrunn cedes the Illyrian provinces to France.
- November 10 – Berners Street Hoax: Theodore Hook manages to attract dozens of people to 54 Berners Street in London.
- November 19 – Battle of Ocana: A Spanish army is ridden down and 4000 are killed and wounded by French forces.
- November 25 – Benjamin Bathurst, a British diplomat, mysteriously disappears (possibly murdered) in Perleberg, west of Berlin.
- December – Boyd massacre: Whangaroa Māori people kill and eat 66 crew and passengers of the brigantine Boyd in New Zealand.
- December 26 – A British invasion force leaves Vlissingen.
- December 30 – Wearing masks at balls is forbidden in Boston, Massachusetts.
Date unknown 
- William Combe begins publication of the verse Tour of Dr Syntax in search of the Picturesque in Ackermann's Political Magazine (London), illustrated with cartoons by Thomas Rowlandson, depicting comic and ridiculous scenes involving a hapless country physician and coming to represent British Regency humour.
- The USS Constitution ("Old Ironsides") is recommissioned as the flagship of the North Atlantic Squadron.
- Louis Poinsot describes the two remaining Kepler-Poinsot polyhedra.
- Jean-Baptiste Lamarck publishes Philosophie Zoologique, outlining the concept of evolution.
- British recruits to the British East India Company and subsequently to the Indian Civil Service are required to learn at least one Indian language fluently.
- January 1 – Cao Bá Quát, Vietnamese poet (d. 1855)
- January 4 – Louis Braille, French teacher, inventor of braille (d. 1852)
- January 15 – Cornelia Connelly, American founder of the Society of the Holy Child Jesus (d. 1879)
- January 15 – Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, French anarchist (d. 1864)
- January 19 – Edgar Allan Poe, American writer and poet (d. 1849)
- February 3 – Felix Mendelssohn, German composer (d. 1847)
- February 12
- February 15 – Cyrus McCormick, American inventor (d. 1884)
- February 23 – William Sprague, American minister and politician from Michigan (d. 1868)
- March 24 – Joseph Liouville, French mathematician (d. 1882)
- March 27 – Georges Haussmann, French civic planner
- April 1 – Nikolai Gogol, Russian writer (d. 1852)
- April 15 – Hermann Gunter Grassmann, Prussian mathematician (d. 1877)
- June 4
- June 8 – Richard Wigginton Thompson, American politician (d. 1900)
- June 20 – Isaak August Dorner, German theologian (d. 1884)
- July 2 – John R. Goldsborough, United States Navy commodore (d. 1877)
- August 6 – Alfred, Lord Tennyson, British poet (d. 1892)
- August 8 – Heinrich Abeken, German theologian (d. 1872)
- August 27 – Hannibal Hamlin, American politician (d. 1891)
- August 29 – Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr., American physician and writer (d. 1894)
- October 22 – Volney E. Howard, American politician (d. 1889)
- September 27 – Raphael Semmes, American and Confederate naval officer (d. 1877)
- November 27 – Fanny Kemble, British-born American actress and writer (d. 1893)
- December 24 – Kit Carson, American frontiersman (d. 1868)
- December 29 – William Ewart Gladstone, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1898)
Date unknown 
- Samuel Ajayi Crowther, 1st Black Anglican Bishop, pioneer linguist (d. 1891)
- Henry K. Hoff, American admiral (d. 1878)
- January 16 – John Moore, British general (killed in battle) (b. 1761)
- February 25 – John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore (Lord Dunmore)
- March 7 – Johann Georg Albrechtsberger, Austrian composer (b. 1736)
- March 11 – Hannah Cowley, English dramatist and poet (b. 1743)
- March 20 – Mary Bateman, English woman executed for witchcraft, known as the "Yorkshire Witch"
- March 25 – Anna Seward, English writer (b. 1747)
- March 27 – Joseph-Marie Vien, French painter (b. 1716)
- May 13 – Beilby Porteus, English bishop and abolitionist (b. 1731)
- May 17 – Leopold Auenbrugger, Austrian physician (b. 1722)
- May 31
- June 4 – Nikolaj Abraham Abildgaard, Danish painter (b. 1743)
- June 8 – Thomas Paine, American revolutionary writer (b. 1737)
- July 6 – Antoine Charles Louis Lasalle, French cavalry general (killed in battle) (b. 1775)
- August 8 – Ueda Akinari, Japanese author and scholar (b. 1734)
- August 18 – Matthew Boulton, English manufacturer and engineer (b. 1728)
- October 8 – James Elphinston, Scottish philologist (b. 1721)
- October 11 – Meriwether Lewis, American explorer (suicide) (b. 1774)
- October 30 – William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1738)
- November 9 – Paul Sandby, English cartographer and painter (b. 1725)
- "Robert Fulton patented the steamboat in 1809". Thinkfinity. Verizon. Retrieved 2011-04-15.
- "The Fulton Patents". Today in Science History. Retrieved 2011-04-15.
- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 243–244. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- "Mary Kies - Patenting Pioneer". About.com. Retrieved 2007-05-14.
- Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
- "The Boyd incident - a frontier of chaos?". New Zealand History online. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 2011-12-07. Retrieved 2012-03-03.