Australia's first census was held in November 1828 in the colony of New South Wales. Previous government statistical reports had been taken from "musters" where inhabitants were brought together for counting. In 1828, the white population was 36,598 of whom 20,870 were free and 15,728 were convicts. 23.8% of the population were born in the colony. 24.5% were women. There were 25,248 Protestants and 11,236 Catholics. Indigenous Australians were not counted.
Of the 36,598, 638 were living in what is now Queensland. There were also 18,128 people in Tasmania.
^Aplin, Graeme, S.G. Foster and Michael McKernan (editors), ed. (1987). Australians: Events and Places. Broadway, New South Wales, Australia: Fairfax, Syme & Weldon Associates. p. 38. ISBN0-949288-13-6.
^Vamplew, Wray (editor), ed. (1987). Australians: Historical Statistics. Broadway, New South Wales, Australia: Fairfax, Syme & Weldon Associates. p. 26. ISBN0-949288-29-2.