1830s

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Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries: 18th century19th century20th century
Decades: 1800s 1810s 1820s1830s1840s 1850s 1860s
Years: 1830 1831 1832 1833 1834 1835 1836 1837 1838 1839
Categories: BirthsDeathsArchitecture
EstablishmentsDisestablishments

The 1830s decade ran from January 1, 1830 to December 31, 1839.

Politics and wars[edit]

Pacific Islands[edit]

East Asia[edit]

China[edit]

Lin Zexu supervising the destruction of opium in 1839

China was ruled by Daoguang Emperor of the Qing Dynasty during the 1830s. The decade witnessed a rapid rise in the sale of opium in China,[2] despite efforts by Daoguang to end the trade.[3] A turning point came in 1834, with the end of the monopoly of the British East India Company, leaving trade in the hands of private entrepreneurs. By 1838, opium sales climbed to 40,000 chests.[2][4] In 1839, newly appointed imperial commissioner Lin Zexu banned the sale of opium and imposed several restrictions on all foreign traders. Lin also closed the channel to Canton, leading to the seizure and destruction of 20,000 chests of opium.[5] The United Kingdom retaliated, seizing Hong Kong on August 23 of that year, starting what would be known as the First Opium War. It would end three years later with the signing of the Treaty of Nanking in 1842.

Japan[edit]

Southeastern Asia[edit]

Vietnam[edit]

Australia and New Zealand[edit]

Southern Asia[edit]

Western Asia[edit]

Eastern Europe[edit]

Poland[edit]

Northern Europe[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

Royalty[edit]
June 20: Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837–1901).

In 1830, William IV succeeded his brother George IV as King of the United Kingdom. Upon his death in 1837, his 18-year-old niece Queen Victoria acceded to the throne. where she would reign for more than 63 years.[7] Under Salic law, the Kingdom of Hanover passes to William's brother, Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, ending the personal union of Britain and Hanover which has persisted since 1714. Queen Victoria took up residence in Buckingham Palace, the first reigning British monarch to make this, rather than St James's Palace, her London home.[8]

Politics and Law[edit]

The United Kingdom had four prime ministers during the 1830s. As the decade began, Tory Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington led parliament. Wellington's government fell in late 1830, failing to react to calls for reform.[9] The Whigs selected Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey to succeed him, who led passage of many reforms, including the Reform Act 1832, the Slavery Abolition Act 1833 (abolishing slavery throughout the British Empire), and the Factory Acts (limiting child labour).

In 1834 Grey retired from public life, leaving Lord Melbourne as his successor. Reforms continued under Lord Melbourne, with the Poor Law Amendment Act in 1834, which stated that no able-bodied British man could receive assistance unless he entered a workhouse. King William IV's opposition to the Whigs' reforming ways led him to dismiss Melbourne in November, appointing Sir Robert Peel to form a Tory government. an opportunity to form a government. Peel's failure to win a House of Commons majority in the resulting general election (January 1835) made it impossible for him to govern, and the Whigs returned to power under Melbourne in April 1835. The Marriage Act 1836 established civil marriage and registration systems that permit marriages in nonconformist chapels, and a Registrar General of Births, Marriages, and Deaths.[10][11]

There were protests and significant unrest during the decade. In May and June 1831 in Wales, coal miners and others rioted for improved working conditions in what was known as the Merthyr Rising. William Howley Archbishop of Canterbury has his coach attacked by an angry mob on his first official visit to Canterbury in 1832. In 1834, Robert Owen organized the Grand National Consolidated Trades Union, an early attempt to form a national union confederation. In May 1838, the People's Charter was drawn up in the United Kingdom, demanding universal suffrage. Chartism continued to gain popularity, leading to the Newport Rising in 1839, the last large-scale armed rebellion against authority in mainland Britain.

In 1835, James Pratt and John Smith were hanged outside Newgate Prison in London after a conviction of sodomy, the last deadly victims of the judicial persecution of homosexual men in England.[12]

Western Europe[edit]

Germany[edit]

Austria[edit]

Switzerland[edit]

Belgium[edit]

France[edit]

Southern Europe[edit]

Ottoman Empire (Balkans)[edit]

Greece[edit]

Italian Peninsula[edit]

Main article: Italian unification

Spain[edit]

Portugal[edit]

Africa[edit]

French conquest of Algeria[edit]

In 1830, France invaded and quickly seized Ottoman Regency of Algiers, and rapidly took control of other coastal communities. Fighting would continue throughout the decade, with the French pitted against forces under Ahmed Bey at Constantine, primarily in the east, and nationalist forces in Kabylie and the west. The French made treaties with the nationalists under `Abd al-Qādir, enabling them to capture Constantine in 1837. Al-Qādir continued to give stiff resistance in the west, which lasted throughout the decade (and well into the 1840s, with Al-Qādir surrendering in 1847).

North America[edit]

Canada[edit]

United States[edit]

United States territories and states that forbade or allowed slavery, 1837.
Slavery[edit]
Settlement[edit]
Native Americans[edit]
Main article: American Indian Wars
Presidents[edit]
Supreme Court[edit]
Other[edit]

Texas[edit]

Mexico[edit]

Nicaragua[edit]

Costa Rica[edit]

Puerto Rico[edit]

Honduras[edit]

South America[edit]

Brazil[edit]

  • April 7, 1831Pedro I abdicates as emperor of Brazil in favor of his 5-year old son Pedro II, who will reign for almost 59 years.
  • November 7, 1831 – Slave trading is forbidden in Brazil.
  • 1834 – In the Empire of Brazil, the Additional Act provides:
    • Establishment of thr Provincial Legislative Assembly
    • Extinction of the State Council
    • Replacement of the Regency Trina
    • Introduction of a direct and secret ballot.

Riograndense Republic[edit]

Uruguay[edit]

Argentina[edit]

Falkland Islands[edit]

Peru[edit]

Ecuador[edit]

Chile[edit]

Science and Technology[edit]

Astronomy[edit]

Mechanical Engineering[edit]

Photography[edit]

L’Atelier de l'artiste. An 1837 daguerreotype by Louis Daguerre, the first to complete the full process.

Electricity[edit]

Many key discoveries about electricity were made in the 1830s. Electromagnetic induction was discovered independently by Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry in 1831; however, Faraday was the first to publish the results of his experiments.[21][22] Electromagnetic induction is the production of a potential difference (voltage) across a conductor when it is exposed to a varying magnetic field. This discovery was essential to the invention of transformers, inductors, and many types of electrical motors, generators and solenoids.[23][24]

In 1834, Michael Faraday's published his research regarding the quantitative relationships in electrochemical reactions, now known as Faraday's laws of electrolysis.[25] Also in 1834, Jean C. A. Peltier discovered the Peltier "effect", which is the presence of heating or cooling at an electrified junction of two different conductors. In 1836, John Daniell invented a primary cell in which hydrogen was eliminated in the generation of the electricity.

Telegraph[edit]

Computers[edit]

Chemistry[edit]

Biology[edit]

Darwin's voyage aboard HMS Beagle.

Archaeology[edit]

Sociology[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Rail[edit]

Flight[edit]

  • May 24, 1832 – Francois Arban, early French balloonist makes his 1st ascent.[34]

Automobile[edit]

Steamships[edit]

Economics[edit]

Popular culture[edit]

Literature[edit]

Theatre[edit]

Music[edit]

Main article: 1830s in music

Sports[edit]

Main article: 1830s in sports

Fashion[edit]

Main article: 1830s in fashion
  • Innovations in roller printing on textiles introduced new dress fabrics.
  • Broad, exaggerated sleeves for women and padded shoulders for men contrasted a narrow, idealized waist.
  • Brocades come back into style.
  • Low boots with elastic insets appear.
  • Greatcoats, overcoats with wide sleeves, become fashionable for men to wear with day wear.

Religion[edit]

Disasters, natural events, and notable mishaps[edit]

Establishments[edit]

People[edit]

World leaders[edit]

  1. Fath Ali Shah, 1797–1834
  2. Mohammad Shah Qajar, 1834–1848
  1. Akbar II 1806–1837
  2. Bahadur Shah Zafar 1837–1858

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "World suffrage timeline – women and the vote". New Zealand Ministry of Culture and Heritage. 
  2. ^ a b Greenberg, Michael. British Trade and the Opening of China 1800-1841 (preview). p. 113. "expansion in imports from 16,550 chests in the season 1831-2 to over 30,000 in 1835-6, and 40,000 in 1838-9" 
  3. ^ Peter Ward Fay, The Opium War, 1840-1842: Barbarians in the Celestial Empire in the Early Part of the Nineteenth Century and the Way by Which They Forced the Gates Ajar (Chapel Hill, North Carolina:: University of North Carolina Press, 1975).
  4. ^ Ebrey, Patricia Buckley, ed. (2010). "9. Manchus and Imperialism: The Qing Dynasty 1644–1900". The Cambridge Illustrated History of China (second ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 236. ISBN 978-0-521-19620-8. 
  5. ^ Poon, Leon. "Emergence Of Modern China". University of Maryland. Retrieved 22 Dec 2008. 
  6. ^ Melbourne.vic.gov.au
  7. ^ "Icons, a portrait of England 1820–1840". Archived from the original on 22 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-12. 
  8. ^ Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0. 
  9. ^ Holmes (2002). p. 283.
  10. ^ wikisource:1836 (33) Registration of Births &c. A bill for registering Births Deaths and Marriages in England.
  11. ^ Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 260–261. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2. 
  12. ^ See [1] 2012
  13. ^ "Lewis Cass and the Politics of Disease: The Indian Vaccination Act of 1832". Muse.jhu.edu. Retrieved 2010-05-23. 
  14. ^ "Wicazo Sa Review: Vol. 18, No. 2, The Politics of Sovereignty (Autumn, 2003), pp. 9–35". Links.jstor.org. Retrieved 2010-05-23. 
  15. ^ www.publicdebt.treas.gov
  16. ^ Wikisource link to Texas Declaration of Independence. Wikisource.
  17. ^ The World Book Encyclopedia. 1970. (U.S.A.) Library of Congress catalog card number 70-79247.
  18. ^ "The Constitution of the Republic of Texas (1836)". University of Texas School of Law. Retrieved 9 December 2012. 
  19. ^ Sher, D. (1965). "The Curious History of NGC 3603". Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada 59: 76. Bibcode:1965JRASC..59...67S. 
  20. ^ Robertson, Patrick (1974). The Shell Book of Firsts. London: Ebury Press. pp. 127–8. ISBN 0-7181-1279-2. 
  21. ^ Ulaby, Fawwaz (2007). Fundamentals of applied electromagnetics (5th ed.). Pearson:Prentice Hall. p. 255. ISBN 0-13-241326-4. 
  22. ^ "Joseph Henry". Distinguished Members Gallery, National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 2006-11-30. 
  23. ^ Sadiku, M. N. O. (2007). Elements of Electromagnetics (fourth ed.). New York (USA)/Oxford (UK): Oxford University Press. p. 386. ISBN 0-19-530048-3. 
  24. ^ "Applications of electromagnetic induction". Boston University. 1999-07-22. 
  25. ^ Ehl, Rosemary Gene; Ihde, Aaron (1954). "Faraday's Electrochemical Laws and the Determination of Equivalent Weights". Journal of Chemical Education 31 (May): 226–232. Bibcode:1954JChEd..31..226E. doi:10.1021/ed031p226. 
  26. ^ Hyman, Anthony (1982). Charles Babbage: pioneer of the computer. Oxford University Press. pp. 177–8. ISBN 0-19-858170-X. 
  27. ^ Hyman, Anthony (1982). Charles Babbage: pioneer of the computer. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-858170-X. 
  28. ^ "Babbage's Analytical Engine, 1834-1871 (Trial model)". Science Museum (London). Archived from the original on 20 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-01. 
  29. ^ Mattusch, Carol C. (1988). Greek Bronze Statuary: from the beginnings through the fifth century B.C.. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. p. 3. ISBN 0801421489. Retrieved August 2010. 
  30. ^ "Railroad — Wilmington & Raleigh (later Weldon)". North Carolina Business History. 2006. Retrieved 2011-12-02. 
  31. ^ "Railroads — prior to the Civil War". North Carolina Business History. 2006. Retrieved 2011-12-02. 
  32. ^ Thomas, R. H. G. (1972). London's First Railway – The London & Greenwich. London: Batsford. ISBN 0-7134-0468-X. 
  33. ^ "Railroad — Wilmington & Raleigh (later Weldon)". North Carolina Business History. CommunicationSolutions/ISI. 2006. Retrieved 2012-04-05. 
  34. ^ Recks, Robert. "Who's Who of Ballooning". Retrieved 24 May 2012. 
  35. ^ "Steamship Curaçao". Archived from the original on 24 December 2010. Retrieved 2011-02-02. 
  36. ^ "Icons, a portrait of England 1820-1840". Archived from the original on 22 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-12. 
  37. ^ http://rsc.byu.edu/archived/mormon-thoroughfare/7-quincy-illinois-temporary-refuge-1838%E2%80%9339