1832 Democratic National Convention
|1832 Presidential Election|
Jackson and Van Buren
|Date(s)||May 21–May 23, 1832|
|Venue||"The Athenaeum", (first), St. Paul and East Lexington Streets
Warfield's Church (First Universalist)
|Presidential nominee||Andrew Jackson (TN)|
|Vice Presidential nominee||Martin Van Buren (NY)|
|Results (President)||Jackson (TN): 283 (100%)|
|Results (Vice President)||Van Buren (NY): 208 (73.5%)
Barbour (VA): 49 (17.3%)
Johnson (KY): 26 (9.2%)
The 1832 Democratic National Convention was held from May 21 to May 23, 1832, in Baltimore, Maryland at the landmark civic, literary and social hall, "The Athenaneum" (the first) at St. Paul and East Lexington Streets - later burned in the Baltimore bank riot of 1835, (west of the City/County Courthouse) and later at "Warfield's Church (thought to be the First Universalist Church at North Calvert and East Pleasant Streets?). This was the first national convention of the Democratic Party of the United States; it followed presidential nominating conventions held previously by the small minority Anti-Masonic Party (in September 1831) and the National Republican Party (in December 1831). The purpose of the convention was to choose a running mate for incumbent President Andrew Jackson of Tennessee, rather than the previous methods of using a caucus of Congressional representatives and senators. The delegates nominated former Secretary of State Martin Van Buren (of New York) for Vice President to replace and succeed the earlier incumbent John C. Calhoun of South Carolina, (during Jackson's first term and who he had fallen out with over the nullification controversy) and endorsed Jackson's reelection.
In the summer of 1822, "Richmond Juno" leader Thomas Richie of Virginia began raising the idea of a national convention to resolve the issue of nomination; ultimately, the Congressional nominating caucus was appealed to by the devotees of Treasury Secretary William H. Crawford's candidacy. Following that defeat in the election of 1824, early in 1827, Van Burn privately made the argument to Richie for an exclusive national convention of Republicans to ensure Jackson's nomination. However, it did not immediately come to fruition while state conventions and legislatures took up Jackson as their presidential candidate for the election of 1828 with Vice President John C. Calhoun as his running mate. Such a type of national convention would occur after the election.
In 1830, Calhoun had fallen out of President Jackson's favor in part from a letter written by Crawford that stated that Calhoun as Secretary of War in President James Monroe's Cabinet pushed for a reprimand of General Jackson over his actions in the Invasion of Florida in 1818; the Petticoat affair in which Calhoun's wife, Floride was a central figure further alienated Jackson from the Vice President and his supporters. The final blow to the relationship came when Calhoun sank Van Buren's nomination to be Minister to England by casting a tie-breaking vote in the United States Senate. Calhoun resigned from the vice presidency on 28 December 1832 (seven weeks after the presidential election) and became a Senator of South Carolina, where he continued to be a proponent of the doctrines of nullification in opposition to Jackson.
The plan for the convention was carried out among members of Jackson's "Kitchen Cabinet," his coterie of informal advisers and confidants. Major William Berkeley Lewis wrote on May 25, 1831, to Amos Kendall, who was then in New Hampshire. He suggested the legislature of New Hampshire call for a national gathering of Republican supporters of the Jackson administration to nominate a candidate for the vice presidency, and for Kendall to pass the idea to Isaac Hill. After the call for a general convention was adopted by members of the legislature, the Globe newspaper seconded their remarks and recommendation on July 6, 1831: "The recommendation of a Convention at Baltimore to nominate a candidate for the Vice-Presidency deserves a serious consideration. It is probably the best plan which can be adopted to produce entire unanimity in the Republican party, and secure its lasting ascendancy."
Lewis later recalled warning former Secretary of War and delegate John Eaton the day before the convention not to vote for anyone there except Van Buren unless he was prepared to "quarrel with the General [Jackson]."
The convention was called to order by Frederick A. Sumner of New Hampshire, who said of the origins and purpose of the convention:
|“||Gentlemen—The proposition for calling a general convention of delegates, to act on the nomination of a candidate for president, and to select a suitable candidate for vice-president of the United States, originated in the state of New Hampshire, by the friends of democracy in that state; and it appears that the proposition, although opposed by the enemies of the democratic party, has found favor in nearly and perhaps all the States of the Union ... The object of the representatives of the people of New Hampshire who called this convention was not to impose on the people as candidate for either of the two offices in this government, any local favorite; but to concentrate the opinion of all the states ... They believed that the example of this convention would operate favorably in future elections; that the people would be disposed after seeing the good effects of this convention in conciliating the different and distant sections of the country, to continue this mode of nomination.||”|
Delegates from all states except Missouri were present. Governor Robert Lucas of Ohio served as the chairman and convention president. Peter Vivian Daniel, James Fenner, John M. Barclay, and Augustin Smith Clayton were chosen as convention vice presidents. John Adams Dix was appointed secretary at the first meeting, with other additional secretaries thereafter. A resolution was passed by the convention requiring two-thirds support of the delegates for a nomination.
|Name||Home state||Delegate vote||Percentage|
|Martin Van Buren||New York||208||73.5%|
|Philip Pendleton Barbour||Virginia||49||17.3%|
|Richard Mentor Johnson||Kentucky||26||9.2%|
Martin Van Buren was nominated for the vice presidency after he won more than two-thirds of the total delegates' votes. The convention endorsed the prior nominations in various areas of the United States of Jackson for the presidency. The convention concluded by adopting a resolution calling for an address or report from the delegations to their constituents.
An address by the Republican delegates of New York gave a history of previous national political activity in the United States. They denounced the National Republicans as Federalists under a new designation and they denounced the Nullifiers while they declared that their own party held the middle ground between the positions of the other two. The address described what they claimed were political similarities between Andrew Jackson and Thomas Jefferson and it defended the policies of Jackson's administration. It characterized Van Buren as a strict constructionist and welcomed his nomination.
Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren defeated their main competitors, Henry Clay and John Sergeant of the National Republican Party, by a large electoral vote margin in the election of 1832. The electors of Pennsylvania supported Jackson, but cast their votes for William Wilkins for the vice presidency.
- Rut land, p. 47.
- Rut land, p. 56.
- The Globe was the principal Jacksonian paper which was established in 1830 in Washington, D.C., with Kendall's influence and edited by Francis Preston Blair. It supplanted General Duff Green's United States Telegraph in the esteem of the Jackson administration as the Telegraph was associated with Calhoun.
- Parton, pp. 382–385.
- Parton, p. 421.
- Niles, p. 234–236.
- Convention, Democratic National (1832), Summary of the Proceedings of a Convention of Republican Delegates, from the Several States in the Union, for the Purpose of Nominating a Candidate for the Office of Vice-President of the United States; Held at Baltimore, in the State of Maryland, May, 1832: With an Address, to the Republicans of the State of New-York, Prepared by their Delegates, in Compliance with the Recommendation of Said Convention, Albany: Packard and Van Benhuysen
- Niles, Hezekiah, ed. (1832), Niles' Weekly Register 42
- Parton, James (2006), Life of Andrew Jackson 3, Kessinger Publishing, ISBN 1-4286-3929-2. First published in 1860.
- Rutland, Robert Allen (1995), The Democrats: From Jefferson to Clinton, University of Missouri Press, ISBN 0-8262-1034-1
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