1834 Hebron massacre
The 1834 Hebron massacre occurred on 24 July 1834, when forces loyal to Ibrahim Pasha attacked the city of Hebron to crush the Peasants' Revolt. Egyptian soldiers subjected Hebron's inhabitants to violence following the fall of the city. Although the Jews had not participated in the uprising and despite Ibrahim Pasha's assurances that the Jewish quarter would be left unharmed, Hebronite Jews were attacked. In one incident alone, five young Jewish girls were raped and murdered.
The peasant revolt of 1834 was a popular uprising against Egyptian rule that took five months to quell. Though notables play a key role, peasants also joined the insurgency, and attacked cities like Jerusalem. One consequence was that they also engaged in extensive plundering and assaults on local Jewish, Christian minorities, and even fellow Muslims. One of the key centres of rebellion was in the central hill regions. Hebron had suffered from Pash Ibrahim's exactions: in the preceding year, under a rule imposing the conscription of one fifth of the male population, 500 Hebronites were drafted into the Egyptian army, on the grounds that they were needed to fight ‘the Nazarene nations’. As Ibrahim Pasha struggled to quash the rebellion, local forces from Nablus and Jerusalem concentrated their efforts to make a last stand in Hebron. Egyptian gunners blew up the castle defences, and, on entering the city, they did not distinguish between local Arabs and Jews - the latter played no role in the rebellion - but set about massacring indiscriminately, having been given 6 hours to enjoy the fruits of their victory. Ibraham Pasha ‘unleashed his troops to loot, pillage, murder, and rape in revenge and to terrorize the inhabitants so as to quash any thoughts of a repeat of their actions against his government’. The Nablus and Jerusalem insurgents also had a role in the violence against the Jewish community. Ibrahim Pasha is said to have intervened eventually to avoid their extermination.
The Jews of Hebron had not participated in the rebellion, but Egyptian soldiers who entered the city ignored this fact. For three hours, troops committed atrocities against the people of Hebron. The Jews were not subject to Pasha's conscription policy but suffered the "most cruel outrages" and were targeted for "special violence". While many Muslims managed to escape the impending danger, the Jews remained, confident they would not be harmed by the Egyptians. Apparently, the Jews of Jerusalem had received an assurance from Ibrahim that Hebron's Jews would be protected. In the end, seven Jewish men and five girls were killed. Isaac Farhi also described violent attacks on the Jews of Hebron committed by Egyptian soldiers. He writes that the attack in Hebron was even worse than the plunder in Safed. Synagogues were desecrated, houses were ransacked, and valuable items were stolen leaving the Jewish community of Hebron destitute. The calamity succeeded in uniting Hebron's Sephardic and Ashkenasic communities, but it took until 1858 for the community to fully recover.
- Oded Avsar (1970). Sefer Hebron (in Hebrew). Keter. p. 56. "בשנת 1835, כשנה לאחר אותו פוגרום"
- Baruch Kimmerling; Joel S. Migdal (2003). "The Revolt of 1834 and Modern Palestine". The Palestinian People: A History. Harvard University Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-674-01129-8. "The final battle occurred in Hebron on August 4: The Egyptian victory there was complete and included levelling of the city, rape of the women, mass killing and conscription of the men, the furnishing of 120 adolescents to Egyptian officers to do with as they wanted."
- Moshe Maʻoz (1975). Studies on Palestine during the Ottoman period. Magnes Press. p. 147. "In Hebron, for example, Jews were massacred in 1834 by Egyptian soldiers who came to put down a local Muslim rebellion"
- David Vital (1975). The origins of Zionism. Clarendon Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-19-827194-9. "In Safed the peasant revolt of 1834 hit the Jews particularly hard; in Hebron there was a massacre of Jews after the entry of Egyptian soldiers sent to put down the Muslim rebels."
- Andrew G. Bostom (2008). The legacy of Islamic antisemitism: from sacred texts to solemn history. Prometheus Books. p. 88. "In fact there occurred during the short period of Egyptian rule some of the gravest anti-Jewish outbreaks in the recent history of Palestine and Syria. In Hebron, for example, Jews were massacred [including the rape-murder of five young girls] in 1834 by Egyptian soldiers who came to put down a local Muslim rebellion."
- Hyam Zvee Sneersohn (1872). Palestine and Roumania: a description of the Holy Land and the past and present state of Roumania and the Roumanian Jews. Ayer Publishing. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-405-10291-2.
- Pinchas Hacohen Peli; Avigdor Shinʼan (1973). "The shifts in the status of Jews in Syria and Palestine in the 19th-century". Proceedings of the Fifth World Congress of Jewish Studies, the Hebrew University, Mount Scopus-Givat Ram, Jerusalem, 3-11 August, 1969. World Union of Jewish Studies. p. 74. "A new era in the history of the region began with the conquest of Syria and Palestine by Ibrahim Pasha the Egyptian: a pogrom against Hebron Jewry, attacks on the Jews of Safed, and a blood libel in Damascus."
- Andrew G. Bostom (2008). The legacy of Islamic antisemitism: from sacred texts to solemn history. Prometheus Books. p. 596. "They raided their homes and defiled any women whom they found. Had Ibrahim Pasha not hastened to come to their aid, there would not have remained a single Jew left in Hebron. The pogroms in Hebron..."
- Joel Beinin Workers and Peasants in the Modern Middle East, Cambridge University Press, 2001 p.33.
- Judith Mendelsohn Rood, Sacred Law In The Holy City: The Khedival Challenge To The Ottomans As Seen from Jerusalem, 1829-1841, BRILL 2004 p.128
- Judith Mendelsohn Rood, Sacred Law In The Holy City: The Khedival Challenge To The Ottomans As Seen from Jerusalem, 1829-1841, BRILL 2004 p.120, p.126
- ’Adel Manna’, ‘Reading the 834 Revolt against Muhammad ‘Ali in Palestine and Rethinking Ottoman Rule,’ in Kamīl Manṣūr,Leila Tarazi Fawaz (eds.)Transformed Landscapes: Essays on Palestine and the Middle East in Honor of Walid Khalidi, The American University Press in Cairo 2009 pp.83-103 p.87
- Emile Marmorstein, ‘European Jews in Muslim Palestine,’ in Elie Kedourie,Sylvia G. Haim (eds.) Palestine and Israel in the 19th and 20th Centuries, (1982) Routledge 2013 pp.1-14, p.5
- Louis Finkelstein (1960). The Jews: their history, culture, and religion. Harper. p. 674. "During the war of Ibrahim Paha, when the Arabs of Hebron revolted against the Egyptians, the Jews of Hebron suffered more than any other Jewish community in the land. Ibrahim Pasha ordered his troops ruthlessly to suppress the revolt, and when they attacked the city with permission to plunder and slaughter at will, they did not distinguish between Arabs and the Jews, who had no part in the rebellion. This calamity united the Hebron Sephardim and the Habad Hasidim, and in 1834 they jointly sent Rabbi Nathan Amram to seek aid in Western Europe for Jewish Hebron. The community did not fully recover until Rabbi Elijah Mani arrived in the city in 1858."
- Sherman Lieber (1992). Mystics and missionaries: the Jews in Palestine, 1799-1840. University of Utah Press. p. 217. ISBN 978-0-87480-391-4. "During a ferocious onslaught of three hours, Ibrahim Pasha allowed his troops to slaughter Muslims, plunder the population, and defile the women. When Muslims sought safety in the Jewish quarter of Hebron, the soldiers pursued them, indiscriminately killing and looting all in their path."
- Edward Robinson (1841). Biblical researches in Palestine, mount Sinai and Arabia Petrea. John Murray. p. 461. "Many were slain; and the Jews especially are reported to have suffered the most cruel outrages from the brutal soldiery."
- American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (1836). The Missionary herald. Published for the Board by Samuel T. Armstrong. p. 253. "After the battle the city was given up to the plunder and licentiousness of the soldiers. They fell upon the poor Jews with special violence, the rebels having made their strongest resistance in the Jewish quarter of the town fighting from…"
- Joseph Schwarz (1850). A descriptive geography and brief historical sketch of Palestine. A. Hart. p. 398.
- Church Pastoral-aid Society, London (1846). The Church of England magazine 20. J. Burns. p. 18. "Seven Jews were massacred by the soldiers; and atrocities were committed, in the quarter belonging to that devoted nation, which cannot be mentioned."
- H. Z. Sneersohn & J. Schwarz only mention the murder of 5 Jews.
- Matthias B. Lehmann (2005). Ladino rabbinic literature and Ottoman Sephardic culture. Indiana University Press. p. 173. ISBN 978-0-253-34630-8.
- J. D. Paxton (1839). Letters from Palestine. p. 142. "A few years ago, when Ibrahim Pasha's troops took Hebron, they committed great outrages on the Jews, by plundering them all of they could find. They broke into their synagogue, and opened all parts of it in which they thought anything could be found, mutilated and tore their roll of the law, and perpetrated many other enormities."
- John Lloyd Stephens (1838). Incidents of travel in Egypt, Arabia Petraea, and the Holy Land. Harper & Brothers. p. 127. "and while their guilty brethren were sometimes spared, the unhappy Jews, never offending but always suffering, received the full weight of Arab vengeance. Their houses were ransacked and plundered; their gold and silver, and all things valuable, carried away; and their wives and daughters violated before their eyes by a brutal soldiery."
- Martin Sicker (1999). Reshaping Palestine: from Muhammad Ali to the British Mandate, 1831-1922. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-275-96639-3.