1844 in Ireland
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- 29 March - Official opening of the Dalkey Atmospheric Railway.
- 14 December - Meeting to establish the first branch of the Society of Saint Vincent de Paul in Ireland chaired by Bartholomew Woodlock.
- 15 December - Saint Malachy's Church, Belfast is dedicated by Dr William Crolly, Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland.
- Dublin iron-founder Richard Turner begins assembing components for the Palm house at Kew Gardens in London, the first large-scale structural use of wrought iron.
- Irish physician Francis Rynd utilises a hollow hypodermic needle to make the first recorded subcutaneous injections, specifically of a sedative to treat neuralgia.
Arts and literature
- 13 July - Thomas Davis's nationalist ballad A Nation Once Again is first published, in his newspaper The Nation.
- Joseph Patrick Haverty paints Patrick O'Brien: The Limerick Piper and his brother Martin Haverty publishes Wanderings in Spain in 1843.
- 3 February - James Henry Reynolds, recipient of the Victoria Cross for gallantry in 1879 at Rorke's Drift, South Africa (died 1932).
- 8 February - Joseph Ivess, member of the New Zealand House of Representatives (died 1919).
- 12 March - Patrick Collins, U.S. Representative from Massachusetts and Mayor of Boston (died 1905).
- 5 June - Thomas Cleeve, founder of Condensed Milk Company of Ireland, High Sheriff of Limerick (died 1908).
- 28 June - John Boyle O'Reilly, poet and novelist (died 1890).
- 7 July - George W. Joy, painter (died 1925).
- 1 August - Daniel John O'Donoghue, printer, labour leader and politician in Ontario (died 1907).
- 9 August - John Sweetman, politician, one of founders of Sinn Féin and second President of the party in 1908 (died 1936).
- 6 November - Robert Browne, Roman Catholic Bishop of the Diocese of Cloyne (died 1935).
- 21 November - William Martin Murphy, Nationalist (Irish Parliamentary Party) MP, newspaper proprietor, leader of employer's syndicate in the Dublin Lockout of 1913 (died 1919).
- 13 December - John Atkinson, Baron Atkinson, politician and judge, Attorney-General for Ireland and Law Lord (died 1932).
Full date unknown
- Charlotte Despard, suffragist, novelist and Sinn Féin activist (died 1939).
- James Rankin, lighthouse keeper in America (died 1921).
- Dr. Mark F. Ryan, nationalist and author (died 1940).
- Thomas Workman, entomologist and arachnologist (died 1900).
- 8 January - William Warren Baldwin, doctor, businessman, lawyer, judge, architect and political figure in Upper Canada (born 1775).
- 10 January - Hudson Lowe, British military leader (born 1769).
- 13 January - Alexander Porter, United States Senator for Louisiana (born 1785).
- 20 February - Edward Kernan, Bishop of Clogher, 1824-1844 (born 1771).
- 26 August - John Keane, 1st Baron Keane, British Army Lieutenant-General (born 1781).
- 29 August - Edmund Ignatius Rice, Roman Catholic missionary and educationalist, founder of the Congregation of Christian Brothers and the Presentation Brothers (born 1762).