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This article is about the year 1849.
|Centuries:||18th century – 19th century – 20th century|
|Decades:||1810s 1820s 1830s – 1840s – 1850s 1860s 1870s|
|Years:||1846 1847 1848 – 1849 – 1850 1851 1852|
|1849 in topic:|
|Archaeology – Architecture – Art – Literature – Music|
|Australia – Brazil - Canada – France – Germany – Mexico – Philippines – South Africa – United Kingdom – United States|
|Rail Transport – Science – Sports|
|Lists of leaders|
|Colonial Governors – State leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2602|
|British Regnal year||12 Vict. 1 – 13 Vict. 1|
|Chinese calendar||戊申年 (Earth Monkey)
4545 or 4485
— to —
己酉年 (Earth Rooster)
4546 or 4486
|- Vikram Samvat||1905–1906|
|- Shaka Samvat||1771–1772|
|- Kali Yuga||4950–4951|
|Japanese calendar||Kaei 2
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 12 days|
|Minguo calendar||63 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2392|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1849.|
- January 1 – France issues Ceres, the nation's first postage stamp.
- January 5 – The Austrian army led by Alfred I, Prince of Windisch-Grätz, enters in the Hungarian capitals, Buda and Pest. The Hungarian government and parliament flees to Debrecen.
- January 8 – Romanian armed groups massacre 600 unarmed Hungarian civilians at Aiud, Romania.
- January 13 – Second Anglo-Sikh War – British forces retreat from the Battle of Tooele.
- January 21 – General elections are held in the Papal States.
- January 21 – The Hungarian army in Transylvania led by Josef Bem is defeated by the Austrians led by Anton Puchner at the battle of Nagyszeben.
- January 23 – Elizabeth Blackwell is awarded her M.D. by the Medical Institute of Geneva, New York, thus becoming the United States' first woman doctor.
- January 27 – The Fayetteville and Western Plank Road Company is incorporated to build a plank road from Fayetteville to Bethania, North Carolina.
- January 31 – A Russian army of 10 000 soldiers enters Transylvania, in order to help the Austrians to defeat the Hungarian forces led by Josef Bem.
- February 1 – Abolition of the Corn Laws by the United Kingdom's Importation Act 1846 comes fully into effect.
- February 4 – The Austrian army led by Anton Puchner defeats the Hungarians led by general Josef Bem in the battle of Vízakna.
- February 5 – The Hungarian revolutionary army led by Richard Guyon break through the pass of Branyiszkó, defeating the Austrian defenders.
- February 8 – The new Roman Republic is proclaimed.
- February 9 – Josef Bems Hungarian army defeats Anton Puchner in the battle of Piski.
- February 14 – In New York City, James Knox Polk becomes the first President of the United States to have his photograph taken.
- February 27 – The main Hungarian and Austrian armies meet in the Battle of Kápolna. The Austrians win the battle.
- February 28 – Regular steamboat service from the west to the east coast of the United States begins with the arrival of the SS California in San Francisco Bay. The California leaves New York Harbor on October 6, 1848, rounds Cape Horn at the tip of South America, and arrives at San Francisco after the 4 month 21 day journey.
- March – The Frankfurt Parliament completes its drafting of a liberal constitution and elects Frederick William IV emperor of the new German national state.
- March 3
- The United States Department of the Interior is established, incorporating the Census Office, General Land Office, Office of Indian Affairs and Patent and Trademark Office.
- Minnesota becomes a United States territory.
- The United States Congress passes the Gold Coinage Act allowing the minting of gold coins.
- March 4 (Sunday) – Zachary Taylor refuses to be sworn in office on a Sabbath. Urban legend holds that David Rice Atchison, President pro tempore of the United States Senate is President de jure for a single day.
- March 5 – The Hungarians led by János Damjanich and Károly Vécsey defeat the Austrians at Szolnok.
- March 5 – Zachary Taylor, the 12th President of the United States, takes his oath of office.
- March 11 – The Hungarian army of Transylvania under general Josef Bem defeats the Russian-Austrian army at Nagyszeben, capturing the city which is headquarters of the Austrian general Anton Puchner. The most part of Transylvania is liberated from the Austrian rule.
- March 28 – Four Christians are ordered burnt alive in Antananarivo, Madagascar by Queen Ranavalona I and 14 others are executed.
- March 29 – The United Kingdom annexes the Punjab.
- April 1 – After 10 days, the insurrection in Brescia is ended by Austrian troops.
- April 2 – Revolutions of 1848 in the German states end in failure.
- April 14 – Hungary declares independence from Austria.
- April 21 – Great Famine (Ireland): 96 inmates of the overcrowded Ballinrobe Union Workhouse have died over the course of the preceding week from illness and other famine-related conditions, a record high.
- April 25 – James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin, the Governor General of Canada, signs the Rebellion Losses Bill, outraging Montreal's English population and triggering the Montreal Riots.
- April 27 – Giuseppe Garibaldi enters Rome to defend it from the French troops of General Charles Oudinot.
- May – The Second Carlist War ends in Spain.
- May 3
- May 10 – The Astor Place Riot takes place in Manhattan over a dispute between two Shakespearean actors. Over 20 people are killed.
- May 15 – Troops of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies take Palermo and crush the republican government of Sicily.
- May 17 – The St. Louis Fire starts when a steamboat catches fire and nearly burns down the entire city.
- June 5 – Denmark becomes a constitutional monarchy.
- June 6 – Fort Worth, Texas, is founded.
- July 3 – French troops occupy Rome; the Roman Republic surrenders.
- July 6 – Battle of Fredericia: the Danish Army beats the Prussian army at Fredericia, Jutland, thereby putting an end to the Prussian/Danish War until 1864.
- July 23 – The French scientist Hippolyte Fizeau measures the speed of light with an instrument placed on the Earth.
- August 8 – Austria crushes the Hungarian rebellion with Russian aid.
- August 28 – Venice (the Republic of San Marco) surrenders to Austrian troops after a 4-month siege.
- September 1 – The first segment of the Pennsylvania Railroad, from Lewistown to Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, opens for service.
- October 6 – The 13 Martyrs of Arad are executed after the Hungarian War of Independence.
- November – Austin College receives a charter in Huntsville, Texas.
- November 13 – The Constitution of California is ratified in a general election.
- November 16 – A Russian court sentences Fyodor Dostoyevsky to death for anti-government activities linked to a radical intellectual group, the Petrashevsky Circle. Facing a firing squad on December 23 the group members are reprieved at the last moment and exiled to the katorga prison camps in Siberia.
- The North Carolina General Assembly incorporates the North Carolina Railroad to complete a rail line from Goldsboro through Raleigh and Salisbury to Charlotte.
- Seven of the "best known" opium clippers go missing: Sylph, Coquette, Kelpie, Greyhound, Don Juan, Mischief, and Anna Eliza.
- January 9 – John Hartley, English tennis player, double winner of Wimbledon (d. 1935)
- January 14 – James Moore, winner of the first ever cycle race (d. 1935)
- January 18
- January 22 – August Strindberg, Swedish author, playwright, and painter (d. 1912)
- February 13 – Lord Randolph Churchill, British statesman (d. 1895)
- February 18 – Alexander Kielland, Norwegian author (d. 1906)
- February 19 – Giovanni Passannante, Italian anarchist (d. 1910)
- February 22 – Nikolay Yakovlevich Sonin, Russian mathematician (d. 1915)
- March 2 – Robert Means Thompson, American naval officer (d. 1930)
- March 7 – Luther Burbank, American biologist and botanist (d. 1926)
- March 19 – Alfred von Tirpitz, German admiral (d. 1930)
- April 6 – John William Waterhouse, Italian-born artist (d. 1917)
- April 20 – Nikolai Nebogatov, Russian admiral (d. 1922)
- April 28 – Augusto Aubry, Italian admiral and politician (d. 1912)
- May 1 – Kamimura Hikonojō, Japanese admiral (d. 1916)
- May 3 – Bernhard von Bülow, Chancellor of Germany (d. 1929)
- May 19 – John Hubbard, American admiral (d. 1932)
- May 22 – Louis Perrier, member of the Swiss Federal Council (d. 1913)
- June 9 – Michael Ancher, Danish painter (d. 1927)
- July 22 – Emma Lazarus, American poet (d. 1887)
- July 29 – Max Nordau, Austrian author, philosopher, and Zionist leader (d. 1923)
- August 28 – Benjamin Godard, French composer (d. 1895)
- September 3 – Sarah Orne Jewett, American writer (d. 1909)
- September 11 – Edmund Poë, British admiral (d. 1921)
- September 14 – Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, Russian researcher, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1936)
- September 21 – Maurice Barrymore, British-American stage actor and playwright, (d. 1905)
- October 28 – Oskar Enkvist, Russian admiral (d. 1912)
- November 24 – Frances Hodgson Burnett, English-American playwright and author (d. 1924)
- November 29 – John Ambrose Fleming, English electrical engineer and inventor (d. 1945)
- December 4 – Crazy Horse, Chief of the Oglala Sioux (d. 1877)
- December 5 – Eduard Seler, Prussian scholar and Mesoamericanist (d. 1922)
- December 6 – August von Mackensen, German field marshal (d. 1945)
- December 12 – William Kissam Vanderbilt, American railway magnate (d. 1920)
- December 20 – Raymond P. Rodgers, American admiral (d. 1925)
- December 25 – Nogi Maresuke, Japanese general (d. 1912)
- Emma Curtis Hopkins, American writer (d. 1929)
- Muhammad Abduh, Islamic reformer (d. 1905)
- Pavlos Karolidis, Greek historian (d. 1930)
- January 18 – Panoutsos Notaras, Greek politician (b. 1752)
- January 30 – Jonathan Alder, American settler (b. 1773)
- February 8 – France Prešeren, Slovenian poet (b. 1800)
- March 14 – King Willem II of the Netherlands (b. 1792)
- March 18 – Antonin Moine, French sculptor (b. 1796)
- March 20 – James Justinian Morier, British diplomat and author (b. 1780)
- April 11 – Pedro Ignacio de Castro Barros, Argentine statesman and priest (b. 1777)
- May 11
- May 22 – Maria Edgeworth, Irish novelist (b. 1767)
- May 25 – Benjamin D'Urban, British general and colonial administrator (b. 1777)
- May 28 – Anne Brontë, English author (b. 1820)
- June 10 – Thomas Robert Bugeaud, Marshal of France and duke of Isly (b. 1784)
- June 15 – James Knox Polk, 11th President of the United States (b. 1795)
- July 12 – Dolley Madison, First Lady of the United States (b. 1768)
- July 28 – King Charles Albert of Sardinia (b. 1798)
- July 31 – Sándor Petőfi, Hungarian poet (b. 1823)
- August 2 – Muhammad Ali of Egypt (b. 1769)
- September 4 – Friedrich Laun, German novelist (b. 1770)
- September 25 – Johann Strauss, Senior, Austrian composer (b. 1804)
- October 6 – Lajos Batthyány, Hungarian statesman, executed (b. 1807)
- October 7 – Edgar Allan Poe, American writer (b. 1809)
- October 17 – Frédéric Chopin, Polish-French musician and composer (b. 1810)
- October 22 – William Miller, American Baptist preacher (b. 1782)
- December 2 – Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen of William IV of the United Kingdom (b. 1792)