1854 in Australia
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- Governor of New South Wales - Sir Charles Augustus FitzRoy
- Governor of South Australia - Sir Henry Young (term ended 20 December)
- Governor of Tasmania - Sir William Denison
- Lieutenant-Governor of Victoria - Charles La Trobe; from June Sir Charles Hotham
- Governor of Western Australia as a Crown Colony - Captain Charles Fitzgerald
This was a year of intense political agitation by miners on the Victorian goldfields.
- 4 July - Anti-Chinese riots occur in Victoria, Australia.
- 5 July - The Mercury was first published in Hobart.
- 17 October - The Melbourne daily newspaper The Age was first published.
- 29 November - The Eureka Flag was flown for the first time during the Eureka Stockade rebellion in Ballarat.
- 3 December - battle suppressing the rebellion at Eureka Stockade
Exploration and settlement
- 4 January - - Captain William McDonald aboard the Samarang discovers the McDonald Islands.
- 12 September - Lieutenant-Governor of Victoria Charles Hotham opens Flinders Street Station, the first city railway station in Australia.
- 18 October - Billy Murdoch, regarded as the finest cricket batsman of his day, was born in Sandhurst, Victoria
- Richard Thomas Baker
- Henry Lefroy
- Mungo William MacCallum
- William Maloney
- George Prendergast
- Charles Riley
- Edward Sugden
- Thomas Waddell
- Walter Withers
- Edward Wittenoom
- 2 October – Benjamin Carvosso, first Wesleyan minister to preach in Australia (b. 1789)
- George Arthur
- Jackey Jackey