1854 in science
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|List of years in science (table)|
|... 1844 . 1845 . 1846 . 1847 . 1848 . 1849 . 1850 ...
1851 1852 1853 -1854- 1855 1856 1857
... 1858 . 1859 . 1860 . 1861 . 1862 . 1863 . 1864 ...
|Art . Archaeology . Architecture . Literature . Music . Philosophy . Science +...|
- July 22 – Discovery of the asteroid 30 Urania by John Russell Hind.
- George Airy calculates the mean density of the Earth by measuring the gravity in a coal mine in South Shields.
- Benjamin Silliman of Yale University is the first person to fractionate petroleum into its individual components by distillation.
- George Boole's work on algebraic logic, An Investigation of the Laws of Thought on Which are Founded the Mathematical Theories of Logic and Probabilities, published in London.
- Arthur Cayley states the original version of Cayley's theorem and produces the first Cayley table.
- Bernhard Riemann, a German mathematician, submits his habilitation thesis Ueber die Darstellbarkeit einer Function durch eine trigonometrische Reihe ("About the representability of a function by a trigonometric series"), in which he describes the Riemann integral. It is published by Richard Dedekind in 1867.
- April–May – Dr John Snow traces the source of one outbreak of cholera in London (which kills 500) to a single water pump, validating his theory that cholera is water-borne, and forming the starting point for epidemiology.
- November – Florence Nightingale and her team of trained volunteer nurses arrive at Selimiye Barracks in Scutari in the Ottoman Empire to care for British Army troops invalided from the Crimean War.
- Spanish-born vocal pedagogist Manuel García observes his own functioning glottis using a form of laryngoscope incorporating mirrors.
- Claude Bernard introduces the term Milieu intérieur in physiology.
- Filippo Pacini, an Italian anatomist, discovers Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes cholera.
- Louis Pasteur begins studying fermentation at the request of brewers.
- May 9 – Albert Fink patents the Fink truss in the United States.
- May 17 – Deck of Wheeling Suspension Bridge in the United States destroyed through torsional movement and vertical undulations in a severe windstorm.
- July – First voyage by a seagoing steamship fitted with a compound steam engine, the screw steamer Brandon, built on the River Clyde in Scotland by John Elder.
- December 20 – In the case of Talbot v. Laroche, pioneer of photography Henry Fox Talbot fails in asserting that the collodion process infringes his calotype patent.
- James Ambrose Cutting takes out three United States patents for improvements to the wet plate collodion process (Ambrotype photography).
- Elisha Otis completes work on the safety elevator.
- March 4 – Napier Shaw (died 1945), English meteorologist.
- March 15 – Emil Adolf von Behring (died 1917), German physiologist, winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1901.
- March 31 – Dugald Clerk (died 1932), Scottish mechanical engineer.
- April 28 – Phoebe Marks, later Hertha Ayrton (died 1923), English electrical engineer.
- April 29 – Henri Poincaré (died 1912), French mathematician.
- May 11 – Ottmar Mergenthaler (died 1899), German-born inventor.
- June 13 – Charles Algernon Parsons (died 1931), British inventor of the steam turbine.
- July 12 – George Eastman (died 1932), American photographic inventor.
- July 23 – Birt Acres (died 1918), American-born cinematographic inventor.
- October 3 – Hermann Struve (died 1920), Russian-born astronomer.
- April 15 – Arthur Aikin (born 1773), chemist and mineralogist
- July 6 – Georg Ohm (born 1787), physicist
- November 18 – Edward Forbes (born 1815), naturalist
- Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
- Cayley, Arthur (1854), "On the theory of groups as depending on the symbolic equation θn=1", Philosophical Magazine 7 (4): 40–47
- Crilly, Tony (2007). 50 Mathematical Ideas you really need to know. London: Quercus. p. 152. ISBN 978-1-84724-008-8.
- "Riemann's Habilitationsschrift". Archived from the original on 20 May 2008. Retrieved 19 May 2008.
- Baly, Monica E.; Matthew, H. C. G. (2004). "Nightingale, Florence (1820–1910)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2011-06-20. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
- Garcia, Manuel (1855). "Observations on the Human Voice". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 7: 399–410. doi:10.1098/rspl.1854.0094. JSTOR 111815.
- Radomski, Teresa (2005). "Manuel García (1805–1906): a bicentenary reflection" (PDF). Australian Voice 11: 25–41. Retrieved 2012-02-07.
- Frerichs, Ralph R. (2001-08-05). "Who first discovered Vibrio cholera?". UCLA School of Public Health. Archived from the original on 19 January 2008. Retrieved 30 December 2007. Pacini's 1854 publication was titled "Osservazioni microscopiche e deduzioni patologiche sul cholera asiático" ("Microscopical observations and pathological deductions on cholera").
- Griggs, Frank (May 2006). "The Inspirations of a German Immigrant: Albert Fink". Structure (National Council of Structural Engineers Associations): 52–4. Retrieved 2011-08-16.
- "John Elder, 1824-1869". Memoirs and portraits of one hundred Glasgow men. Glasgow: James MacLehose & Sons. 1886. p. 118. Archived from the original on 2011-06-05. Retrieved 2011-06-16.
- Wood, R. D. (1975). The Calotype Patent Lawsuit of Talbot v. Laroche 1854. Bromley, Kent: privately published. ISBN 0-9504377-0-0. Retrieved 2010-10-18.