1855 in science
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|List of years in science (table)|
|... 1845 . 1846 . 1847 . 1848 . 1849 . 1850 . 1851 ...
1852 1853 1854 -1855- 1856 1857 1858
... 1859 . 1860 . 1861 . 1862 . 1863 . 1864 . 1865 ...
|Art . Archaeology . Architecture . Literature . Music . Philosophy . Science +...|
- Robert Remak publishes Untersuchungen über die Entwickelung der Wirbelthiere in Berlin, providing evidence for cell division, which is supported (but not acknowledged) by Rudolf Virchow.
- Rev. James Patterson presents the Gall orthographic projection for celestial and terrestrial equal-area cartography.
- May 10 - The Bunsen burner is invented by Robert Wilhelm Bunsen.
- Friedrich Gaedcke first isolates the cocaine alkaloid, which he names "erythroxyline".
- William Odling proposes that carbon is tetravalent.
- Charles-Adolphe Wurtz publishes the Wurtz reaction.
- Benjamin Silliman, Jr. pioneers methods of petroleum cracking, which makes the entire modern petrochemical industry possible.
- March - Mary Seacole opens the British Hotel at Balaklava, a nursing and convalescent establishment for Crimean War officers.
- October - The Renkioi temporary hospital, prefabricated in wood to a design by I. K. Brunel, is erected in Turkey to serve Crimean War invalids.
- Thomas Addison describes Addison's disease in On the Constitutional and Local Effects of Disease of the Suprarenal Capsules.
- James Clerk Maxwell unifies electricity and magnetism into a single theory, classical electromagnetism, thereby showing that light is an electromagnetic wave.
- October 17 - Henry Bessemer files his patent for the Bessemer process of steelmaking.
- William Armstrong produces the rifled breech-loading Armstrong Gun.
- Matthew Fontaine Maury publishes The Physical Geography of the Sea.
- January 5 - King Camp Gillette (died 1932), inventor.
- January 21 - John Moses Browning (died 1926), inventor.
- January 28 - William Seward Burroughs (died 1898), inventor of the adding machine.
- March 13 - Percival Lowell (died 1916), astronomer.
- May 29 - David Bruce (died 1931), microbiologist.
- November 5 - Léon Teisserenc de Bort (died 1913), meteorologist.
- November 7 - Edwin Hall (died 1938), American physicist who discovered the "Hall effect".
- February 23 - Carl Friedrich Gauss (born 1777), mathematician.
- March 20 - Joseph Aspdin (born 1778), inventor.
- April 13 - Henry De la Beche (born 1796), geologist.
- June 29 - John Gorrie (born 1803), physician and inventor.
- July 6 - Andrew Crosse (born 1784), 'gentleman scientist', pioneer experimenter in electricity.
- July 8 - William Edward Parry (born 1790), Arctic explorer.
- October 7 - François Magendie (born 1783), physiologist.
- December 6 - William John Swainson (born 1789), naturalist.
- Virchow, R. Archiv fÜr pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für klinische Medicin 8 (1855).
- Lagunoff, David (2002). "A Polish, Jewish Scientist in 19th-Century Prussia". Science 298 (5602): 2331. doi:10.1126/science.1080726.
- At Glasgow meeting of British Association for the Advancement of Science.
- Gaedcke, F. (1855). "Ueber das Erythroxylin, dargestellt aus den Blättern des in Südamerika cultivirten Strauches Erythroxylon Coca". Archiv der Pharmazie 132 (2): 141–150. doi:10.1002/ardp.18551320208.
- Wurtz, Adolphe (1855). "Sur une nouvelle classe de radicaux organiques". Annales de chimie et de physique 44: 275–312. Retrieved 2012-02-07.
- "Benjamin Silliman, Jr. (1816–1885)". Picture History. Picture History LLC. 2003. Retrieved 2007-03-24.
- Seacole, Mary (1858). Wonderful Adventures of Mrs Seacole in Many Lands. London: Blackwood.
- Silver, Christopher (2007). Renkioi: Brunel's Forgotten Crimean War Hospital. Sevenoaks: Valonia Press. ISBN 978-0-9557105-0-6.
- Carroll, Sean B. (2009). Remarkable Creatures: epic adventures in the search for the origins of species. London: Quercus. pp. 172–4.
- van Dulken, Stephen (2001). Inventing the 19th Century: the great age of Victorian inventions. London: British Library. pp. 30–1. ISBN 0-7123-0881-4.