1857 in the United States
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|1857 in the United States|
|Years:||1854 1855 1856 – 1857 – 1858 1859 1860|
31 stars (1851–58)
Events from the year 1857 in the United States.
- President: Franklin Pierce (Democratic) (until March 4), James Buchanan (Democratic) (starting March 4)
- Vice President: vacant (until March 4), John C. Breckinridge (Democratic) (starting March 4)
- Chief Justice: Roger B. Taney
- Speaker of the House of Representatives: Nathaniel P. Banks (American-Massachusetts) (until March 4), James Lawrence Orr (D-South Carolina) (starting December 7)
- Congress: 34th (until March 4), 35th (starting March 4)
- January 9 – An earthquake with an estimated magnitude of 7.9 strikes near Parkfield, California (see Fort Tejon earthquake).
- February 3 – The National Deaf Mute College (later renamed Gallaudet University) is established in Washington, DC, becoming the first school for the advanced education of the deaf.
- March 4 – James Buchanan succeeds Franklin Pierce as President of the United States.
- March 6 – Dred Scott v. Sanford: The Supreme Court of the United States rules that Blacks are not citizens and slaves can not sue for freedom, driving the country further towards the American Civil War (the ruling is not overturned until the 14th Amendment in 1868).
- March 12 – Elizabeth Blackwell opens a hospital, the New York Infirmary for Indigent Women and Children.
- March 23 – Elisha Otis' first elevator is installed (at 488 Broadway, New York City).
- March 27 – Waterbury Clock Company is legally incorporated in Waterbury, Connecticut, predecessor to the current day Timex Group USA and the iconic Timex brand.
- July 18 – The Utah Expedition leaves Fort Leavenworth, effectively beginning the Utah War.
- September 11 – Mountain Meadows massacre in Utah.
- September 12 – The S.S. Central America sinks off the coast of North Carolina, killing 425 people.
- October 13 – New York banks close following a major financial panic and do not reopen until December 12.
- Speculation in U.S. railway shares causes financial crisis in Europe.
- The seat of government of Iowa is moved from Iowa City to present-day Des Moines.
- The Mormons abandon Las Vegas, Nevada.
- American politician William Daniel proposes the Local Option for prohibition.
- Panic of 1857
- March 20 – Benjamin F. Shively, United States Senator from Indiana from 1909 to 1916. Died in 1916.
- September 15 – William Howard Taft, 27th President of the United States from 1909 till 1913 and 10th Chief Justice of the United States from 1921 till 1930. Died in 1930.
- October 7 – George P. McLean, United States Senator from Connecticut from 1911 till 1923. Died in 1932.
- December 1 – Samuel M. Ralston, United States Senator from Indiana from 1923 to 1925. Died in 1925.
- December 2 – J. Frank Allee, United States Senator from Delaware from 1903 till 1907. Died in 1938.
- May 1 – Stephen Adams, United States Senator from Mississippi from 1852 till 1857. (born 1807)
- May 26 – James Bell, United States Senator from New Hampshire from 1855 till 1857. (born 1804)
- September 15 – John Henderson, United States Senator from Mississippi from 1839 till 1845. (born 1797)
- October 7 – Louis McLane, United States Senator from Delaware from 1827 till 1829. (born 1786)
- December 24 – Robert C. Nicholas, United States Senator from Louisiana from 1836 till 1841. (born 1793)
- Media related to 1857 in the United States at Wikimedia Commons