1860 Republican National Convention

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1860 Republican National Convention
1860 Presidential Election
Abraham Lincoln head on shoulders photo portrait.jpg Hannibal Hamlin, photo portrait seated, c1860-65.jpg
Nominees
Lincoln and Hamlin
Convention
Date(s) May 16-May 18, 1860
City Chicago, Illinois
Venue The Wigwam
Candidates
Presidential nominee Abraham Lincoln of Illinois
Vice Presidential nominee Hannibal Hamlin of Maine
Other candidates William H. Seward of New York
1856  ·  1864

The 1860 National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States, held in Chicago, Illinois at the Wigwam,[1] nominated former Representative Abraham Lincoln of Illinois for President and Senator Hannibal Hamlin of Maine for Vice President. This was only the second national nominating convention for the Republican Party.

Other candidates at the convention included former New York Governor William H. Seward, U.S. Senator Salmon P. Chase of Ohio, former U.S. Representative Edward Bates of Missouri, and U.S. Senator Simon Cameron of Pennsylvania.

This primary was notable as every candidate that ran for the Republican nomination eventually became a member of Lincoln's cabinet.

Seward had been the favorite going into the convention, and led on the first two ballots. His lead soon melted away to the dark horse Lincoln, who captured the nomination on the third ballot. Lincoln's campaign manager, David Davis, was credited with playing a substantial role in the convention outcome.

Lincoln-Hamlin went on to defeat three other major tickets that year, including Democratic nominee Stephen A. Douglas, U.S. Senator from Illinois.

Ballot counts[edit]

Wigwam interior, May 1860, during Nominating Convention

The Republican National Convention met in mid-May, after the Democrats had been forced to adjourn the 1860 Democratic National Convention in Charleston, South Carolina without a nominee and had not yet re-convened in Baltimore, Maryland. With the Democrats in disarray and with a sweep of the Northern states possible, the Republicans were confident going into their convention in Chicago. William H. Seward of New York was considered the front runner, followed by Abraham Lincoln of Illinois, Salmon P. Chase of Ohio, and Missouri's Edward Bates.

As the convention developed, however, it was revealed that Seward, Chase, and Bates had each alienated factions of the Republican Party. Delegates were concerned that Seward was too closely identified with the radical wing of the party, and his moves toward the center had alienated the radicals. Chase, a former Democrat, had alienated many of the former Whigs by his coalition with the Democrats in the late 1840s, had opposed tariffs demanded by Pennsylvania, and critically, had opposition from his own delegation from Ohio. Bates outlined his positions on extension of slavery into the territories and equal constitutional rights for all citizens, positions that alienated his supporters in the border states and southern conservatives. German-Americans in the party opposed Bates because of his past association with the Know-Nothings.

Since it was essential to carry the West, and because Lincoln had a national reputation from his debates and speeches as the most articulate moderate, he won the party's nomination on the third ballot on May 18, 1860. Lincoln associates Leonard Swett, Ward Hill Lamon, and David Davis helped engineer Lincoln's nomination, according to the 1949 doctoral thesis Ward Hill Lamon: Lincoln's Particular Friend, written by Lavern Marshall Hamand at the Graduate College of the University of Illinois.

Presidential Ballot
Nominee Home State 1st 2nd 3rd 3rd "corrected"
William H. Seward New York 173.5 184.5 180 111.5
Abraham Lincoln Illinois 102 181 231.5 349
Simon Cameron Pennsylvania 50.5 2 0 0
Salmon P. Chase Ohio 49 42.5 24.5 2
Edward Bates Missouri 48 35 22 0
William L. Dayton New Jersey 14 10 1 1
John McLean Ohio 12 8 5 0.5
Jacob Collamer Vermont 10 0 - -
Benjamin F. Wade Ohio 3 0 - -
John M. Read Pennsylvania 1 0 - -
Charles Sumner Massachusetts 1 0 - -
John C. Fremont California 1 0 - -
Cassius M. Clay Kentucky - 2 1 1

After seeing how close Lincoln was to the 233 votes needed, Robert K. Enos, an 1860 Ohio delegate, was responsible for getting 3 fellow Ohio delegates to shift their 4 votes to Lincoln. There is a 5/19/1860 Chicago Press and Tribune article - "The Four Votes" and other accounts proving that fact. This triggered an avalanche towards Lincoln with a final count of 364 votes out of 466 cast.[2]

Senator Hannibal Hamlin of Maine was nominated for vice president, defeating Cassius M. Clay of Kentucky.

Vice Presidential Ballot
Nominee Home State 1st 2nd
Hannibal Hamlin Maine 194 367
Cassius M. Clay Kentucky 100.5 86
John Hickman Pennsylvania 57 13
Andrew H. Reeder Pennsylvania & Kansas 51 0
Nathaniel Banks Massachusetts 38.5 0
Henry W. Davis Maryland 8 0
Sam Houston Texas 6 0
William L. Dayton New Jersey 3 0
John M. Read Pennsylvania 1 0

Platform[edit]

The 1860 Republican party platform was recommended to the convention by a committee chaired by Judge William Jessup of Pennsylvania, and was adopted unanimously.[3]

The platform contained seventeen declarations of principle, of which ten dealt directly with the issues of free soil principles, slavery, the Fugitive Slave Act,[4] and the preservation of the Union, while seven dealt with other issues. Clauses 12 through 16 of the platform called for a protective tariff, enactment of the Homestead Act, freedom of immigration into the United States and full rights to all immigrant citizens, internal improvements, and the construction of a Pacific railroad.[3]

In addition to the preservation of the Union, all five of these additional promises were enacted by the Thirty-seventh Congress and implemented by Abraham Lincoln or the presidents who immediately succeeded him.

Few of the delegates to the 1860 Republican National Convention were Southerners, and few of these provisions were drawn up so as to appeal to voters of the South.

Candidate gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Karamanski, Theodore J. (2005). "Wigwam". The Electronic Encyclopedia of Chicago. Chicago Historical Society. Archived from the original on 23 April 2007. Retrieved March 28, 2007. 
  2. ^ Proceedings of the Republican national convention held at Chicago, May 16, 17 and 18, 1860
  3. ^ a b Republican Party National Platform, 1860 Reported from the Platform Committee by Judge Jessup of Pennsylvania and adopted unanimously by the Republican National Convention held at Chicago on May 17, 1860. Broadside printing by The Chicago Press & Tribune, May, 1860
  4. ^ Hyman, Andrew. "The Due Process Plank," April 30, 2012, Seton Hall Law Review (forthcoming), via SSRN.