1861 in Canada
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Events from the year 1861 in Canada.
- April 14 - A major flood hits Montreal
- April 15 - Nova Scotia: resolution for provincial union by Joseph Howe for referral to the other British North American provinces in July.
- May 13 - The UK declares its neutrality in American Civil War.
- June 1 - The UK bans naval craft or privateers of American belligerents from carrying prizes into British ports or territorial waters.
- November 8 - The Trent Affair: British packet steamer Trent stopped by Northern warship in international waters. Two Confederate diplomats taken off and imprisoned in Boston.
- November 28 - Viscount Monck becomes Governor-General.
- December 3 - The UK sends reinforcements to British North America.
- December 23 - The UK demands release of Confederate diplomats taken from Trent.
- December 26 - Confederate diplomats taken from Trent released.
Full date unknown 
- Joseph Howe became Premier of Nova Scotia
- Dr. Anderson Ruffin Abbott becomes the first Canadian-born Black to graduate from medical school.
- Newfoundland general election, 1861
- The Cariboo Gold Rush starts in British Columbia.
January to June 
- January 15 - Joseph-Mathias Tellier, politician (died 1952)
- March 10 - Pauline Johnson, poet, writer and performer (died 1913)
- March 10 - Clifford Sifton, politician and Minister (died 1929)
- March 19 - Lomer Gouin, politician and 13th Premier of Quebec (died 1929)
- March 20 - Herménégilde Boulay, politician (died 1942)
- April 13 - Margaret Saunders, artist
- April 15 - Bliss Carman, poet (died 1929)
- June 7 - George Henry Murray, politician and Premier of Nova Scotia (died 1929)
July to December 
- July 11 - John Best, politician (died 1923)
- September 5 - Tobias Norris, politician and 10th Premier of Manitoba (died 1936)
- September 18 - Ella Cora Hind, journalist and women's rights activist (died 1942)
- September 19 - Charles Ernest Gault, politician (died 1946)
- October 31 - James Bowman, politician (died 1940)
- November 4 - Raoul Dandurand, politician (died 1942)
- November 6 - James Naismith, sports coach and innovator, inventor of basketball (died 1939)
- November 17 - Archibald Lampman, poet (died 1899)
- December 22 - Sara Jeannette Duncan, author and journalist (died 1922)
- February 3 - Louis-Théodore Besserer, notary, soldier, politician, and businessman (born 1785)
- February 13 - Denis-Benjamin Viger, politician, businessman and politician (born 1774)
- February 16 - Mary Stewart Fleming, wife of Canadian Prime Minister Alexander Mackenzie (born 1794)
- November 9 - Howard Douglas, soldier, educator, author, inventor, and colonial administrator (born 1776)