1861 in science

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The year 1861 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.

Astronomy[edit]

Biology[edit]

Chemistry[edit]

Earth sciences[edit]

Medicine and physiology[edit]

Paleontology[edit]

Technology[edit]

The first colour photograph by James Clerk Maxwell.

Publications[edit]

Awards[edit]

Births[edit]

Deaths[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kirchhoff, G.; Bunsen, R. (1861). "Chemische Analyse durch Spectralbeobachtungen". Annalen der Physik und Chemie 189 (7): 337–381. Bibcode:1861AnP...189..337K. doi:10.1002/andp.18611890702. Retrieved 2011-11-21. 
  2. ^ Weeks, Mary Elvira (1932). "The discovery of the elements. XIII. Some spectroscopic discoveries". Journal of Chemical Education 9 (8): 1413–1434. Bibcode:1932JChEd...9.1413W. doi:10.1021/ed009p1413. Retrieved 2011-11-21. 
  3. ^ Kazansky, B.; Bykov, G. V., ed. (1961). Centenary of the Theory of Chemical Structure: collection of papers by A. M. Butlerov. Moscow: Publishing House of the USSR Academy of Sciences. 
  4. ^ Rzepa, Henry S. (2005). "Joseph Loschmidt: Structural formulae, 1861". Archived from the original on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  5. ^ "Guillaume Benjamin Amand Duchenne de Boulogne". WhoNamedIt?. Archived from the original on 25 May 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-27. 
  6. ^ Natural History Museum (London) BMNH 37001. Chiappe, Luis M. (2007). Glorified Dinosaurs. Sydney: UNSW Press. pp. 118–146. ISBN 0-471-24723-5. 
  7. ^ "Fairground Rides – A Chronological Development". National Fairground Archive. University of Sheffield. 2007. Retrieved 2011-08-24. 
  8. ^ "On the rolling of ships." Transactions of the Institution of Naval Architects 2 (1861): pp. 180–227; 3 (1862): pp. 45–62.
  9. ^ Greeley, Horace; Case, Leon (1872). The Great Industries of the United States. Hartford: J.B. Burr & Hyde. p. 944. 
  10. ^ The Hutchinson Factfinder. Helicon. 1999. ISBN 1-85986-000-1.