United States House of Representatives elections, 1862

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United States House of Representatives elections, 1862
United States
1860 ←
June 2, 1862 - November 3, 1863[1] → 1864

All 185[2] seats to the United States House of Representatives
93 seats were needed for a majority
  First party Second party Third party
  Schuyler Colfax portrait.jpg SSCox.jpg Francis Thomas of Maryland - photo portrait seated.jpg
Leader Schuyler Colfax Samuel Cox Francis Thomas
Party Republican Democratic Constitutional Union
Leader's seat Indiana-9th Ohio-7th Maryland-4th
Last election 108 seats 45 seats 28 seats
Seats won 88[3] 72 24
Seat change Decrease 20 Increase 27 Decrease 4

Speaker before election

Galusha Grow (defeated)
Republican

Elected Speaker

Schuyler Colfax
Republican

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1862, mostly in November, in the middle of President Abraham Lincoln's first term. His Republicans lost 22 seats in Congress, while the Democrats picked up 28, for a net swing of 50 seats (or 27 percent) out of a total House membership of 185.

The mid-term elections in 1862 brought the Republicans serious losses due to sharp disfavor with the Administration over its failure to deliver a speedy end to the war, as well as rising inflation, high new taxes, ugly rumors of corruption, the suspension of habeas corpus, the draft law, and fears that freed slaves would undermine the labor market. The Emancipation Proclamation announced in September gained votes in Yankee areas of New England and the upper Midwest, but it lost votes in the ethnic cities and the lower Midwest. While Republicans were discouraged, Democrats were energized and did especially well in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, and New York. Elated Democrats from the Northwest hailed the elections as a repudiation of the emancipation heresy.[4]

The Republicans did keep control of the major states except New York. Most important, the Republicans retained control of the House, in spite of falling from 59% of the seats to just over 46% because of their alliance with the 24 Unionist representatives; the Unionists were a group of disaffected pro-war Democrats who broke with their party during the previous Congress. The voters, editorialized the Cincinnati Gazette, "are depressed by the interminable nature of this war, as so far conducted, and by the rapid exhaustion of the national resources without progress.".[5]

A typical result came in Lincoln's home district of Springfield, Illinois, where John T. Stuart, a Democrat and one of Lincoln's former law partners, defeated the Republican incumbent. Anti-black sentiments that overwhelmingly favored forbidding immigration of freed slaves and preventing black suffrage was primarily responsible.[6]

Election summaries[edit]

Tennessee and Virginia had been partially represented in the 37th Congress with 8 filled seats between them, but were unrepresented in the 38th Congress. The other 9 secessionist states had been unrepresented in the 37th Congress and remained unrepresented in the 38th, leaving 61 vacancies.

Reapportionment took place according to the 1860 Census, using the 1850 Apportionment bill[7] which provided for a permanent total of 233 seats, but a subsequent bill added an additional 8 seats,[8] increasing the number of seats to 241 (61 of which were in secessionist states), a net gain of 2 seats over the previous Congress. Excluding the secessionist states, 2 states lost 2 seats each, 5 states lost 1 seat, 11 states had no change in apportionment, 2 states gained 2 seats each, 1 state gained 3 seats, 1 gained 4 seats, and 1 gained 5 seats. Within the secessionist states, 3 states lost 2 seats each, 3 lost 1 seat, 2 had no change, 2 gained 1 seat each, and 1 gained 2 seats, a net loss of five seats apportioned to those states.

Upon the admission of West Virginia, 3 of Virginia's seats were reassigned to the new State, filling 3 vacancies,[9] and during the 2nd session, one seat was added for the new State of Nevada.[10]

88 24 72
Republican Unionist Democratic
State Type Date Total
seats
Republican Democratic Unionist[11]
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Illinois District +
1 at-large
November 4, 1862
(Election Day)[12]
14 Increase 5 5 Increase 1 9 Increase 4 0 Steady
Kansas At-large 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Michigan District 6 Increase 2 5 Increase 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Minnesota District[13] 2 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Missouri District 9 Increase 2 1 Steady 0 Decrease 5 8 Increase 7
New Jersey District 5 Steady 1 Decrease 1 4 Increase 1 0 Steady
New York District 31 Decrease 2 14 Decrease 9 17 Increase 7 0 Steady
Wisconsin District 6 Increase 3 3 Steady 3 Increase 3 0 Steady
Delaware At-large November 1, 1862 1 Steady 0 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1
Indiana District October 14, 1862 11 Steady 4 Decrease 3 7 Increase 3 0 Steady
Iowa District October 14, 1862 6 Increase 4 6 Increase 4 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maine District September 8, 1862 5 Decrease 1 4 Decrease 2 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Massachusetts District November 1, 1862 10 Decrease 1 10 Steady 0 Steady 0 Decrease 1
Ohio District October 14, 1862 19 Decrease 2 5 Decrease 8 14 Increase 6 0 Steady
Oregon At-large June 2, 1862 1 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District October 14, 1862 24 Decrease 1 12[3] Decrease 7 12 Increase 6 0 Steady
1863 elections
California At-large September 2, 1863 3 Steady 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Connecticut District April 6, 1863 4 Steady 3 Increase 1 1 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Kentucky District August 3, 1863 9 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Decrease 1 9 Steady
Maryland District November 3, 1863 5 Decrease 1 0 Steady 1 Increase 1 4 Decrease 2
New Hampshire District March 10, 1863 3 Steady 2 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Rhode Island District April 1, 1863 2 Steady 2 Increase 2 0 Steady 0 Decrease 2
Vermont District September 1, 1863 3 Steady 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
West Virginia[14] District October 22, 1863 3 Increase3 0 Steady 0 Steady 3 Increase 3
1864 election
Nevada[14] At-large November 8, 1864 1 Increase 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Secessionist States
Alabama District 6 Decrease 1
Arkansas District 3 Increase 1
Florida At-large 1 Steady
Georgia District 7 Decrease 1
Louisiana District 5 Increase 1
Mississippi District 5 Steady
North Carolina District 7 Decrease 1
South Carolina District 4 Decrease 2
Tennessee District 8 Decrease 2 Decrease 3
Texas District 4 Increase 2
Virginia District 11[15] Decrease 2 Decrease 5
Total[2] 184
58 Vacancies[16]
Increase 3 88[3]
47.8%
Decrease 20 72
39.1%
Increase 27 24
13.0%
Decrease 4
House seats
Republican
  
47.83%
Democratic
  
39.13%
Unionist
  
13.04%

List of races[edit]

California[edit]

Note: From statehood to 1866, California's representatives were elected at-large, with the top two vote-getters winning election from 1849 to 1858; in 1860 when California gained a seat in the House the top three vote-getters were elected.

District Incumbent Party Results Candidates
California's 1st at-large seat Timothy Phelps Republican Retired
Republican hold
Cornelius Cole (R) 20%
William Higby (R) 19.9%
Thomas B. Shannon (R) 19.9%

John Bigler (I) 13.4%
John B. Weller (I) 13.4%
Ninian E. Whiteside (D) 13.4%
California's 2nd at-large seat Aaron A. Sargent Republican Retired
Republican hold
California's 3rd at-large seat Frederick F. Low Republican Retired
Republican hold

Ohio[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[17]
Ohio 1 George H. Pendleton Democratic 1856 Re-elected
Ohio 2 John A. Gurley Republican 1858 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
Ohio 3 Clement Vallandigham Democratic 1858 (s) Lost re-election
Republican gain
Ohio 4 William Allen Democratic 1858 Retired
Democratic hold
Ohio 5 New district No incumbent
Democratic gain
Ohio 6 Chilton A. White Democratic 1860 Re-elected
Ohio 7 Richard A. Harrison Unionist 1861 (s) Retired
Democratic loss
Samuel S. Cox
Redistricted from the 12th district
Democratic 1856 Re-elected
Samuel Shellabarger
Redistricted from the 8th district
Republican 1860 Lost renomination
Democratic loss
Ohio 8 New district No incumbent
Democratic gain
Ohio 9 Warren P. Noble Democratic 1860 Re-elected
Samuel T. Worcester
Redistricted from the 13th district
Republican 1861 (s) Lost re-election
Republican loss
Ohio 10 James M. Ashley
Redistricted from the 5th district
Republican 1858 Re-elected
Ohio 11 Valentine B. Horton Republican 1860 Retired
Democratic gain
Ohio 12 Carey A. Trimble
Redistricted from the 10th district
Republican 1858 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
Ohio 13 New district No incumbent
Democratic gain
Ohio 14 Harrison G. O. Blake Republican 1859 (s) Retired
Democratic gain
Ohio 15 Robert H. Nugen Democratic 1860 Retired
Democratic hold
James R. Morris
Redistricted from the 17th district
Democratic 1860 Re-elected
William P. Cutler
Redistricted from the 16th district
Republican 1860 Lost re-election
Republican loss
Ohio 16 New district No incumbent
Democratic gain
Ohio 17 New district No incumbent
Republican gain
Ohio 18 Sidney Edgerton Republican 1858 Retired
Republican hold
Ohio 19 Albert G. Riddle Republican 1860 Retired
Republican hold

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Excluding states admitted after the start of Congress
  2. ^ a b Including late elections
  3. ^ a b c Includes 2 Independent Republicans
  4. ^ Voegeli, (1963)
  5. ^ Nevins (1960) 6:318-22, quote on p 322
  6. ^ Tap (1993)
  7. ^ Stat. 432
  8. ^ 12 Stat. 353
  9. ^ 12 Stat. 633
  10. ^ 13 Stat. 32
  11. ^ Including Unconditional Unionists
  12. ^ In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform date for choosing electors. Congressional elections were unaffected by this law, but the date was gradually adopted by the states for Congressional elections
  13. ^ Changed from at-large
  14. ^ a b New state
  15. ^ 3 seats subsequently transferred to West Virginia
  16. ^ After 3 seats were reassigned from Virginia to West Virginia
  17. ^ Smith, Joseph P, ed. (1898). History of the Republican Party in Ohio I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. pp. 150, 151. 

References[edit]

  • Carson, Jamie L. et al. "The Impact of National Tides and District-Level Effects on Electoral Outcomes: The U.S. Congressional Elections of 1862-63," American Journal of Political Science, Oct 2001, Vol. 45 Issue 4, pp 887–898 in JSTOR
  • Nevins, Allan. Ordeal of the Union: vol 6. War Becomes Revolution, 1862-1863 (1960)
  • Shankman, Arnold. "Francis W. Hughes and the 1862 Pennsylvania Election." Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 1971 95(3): 383-393. Issn: 0031-4587
  • Tap, Bruce. "Race, Rhetoric, and Emancipation: the Election of 1862 in Illinois." Civil War History 1993 39(2): 101-125. Issn: 0009-8078
  • Voegeli, Jacque. "The Northwest and the Race Issue, 1861-1862," Mississippi Valley Historical Review Vol. 50, No. 2 (Sep., 1963), pp. 235–251 IN jstor

See also[edit]