1874 in Australia
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- 8 January - Arthur Macalister becomes Premier of Queensland for the third time.
- 10 March - Ernest Giles is the first European to explore and later names (12 March) the Petermann Ranges.
- 1 April - John Forrest leads an expedition from Geraldton, Western Australia across the Gibson Desert to the Peake telegraph station in South Australia.
- 15 June - Brisbane's first Victoria Bridge opens; it is lost in the 1893 Brisbane flood.
- 31 July - George Kerferd becomes Premier of Victoria.
- 28 September - Victorian Humane Society established; it later becomes the Royal Humane Society of Australasia.
- 6 November - University of Adelaide established by act of the South Australian Parliament; it opened in 1876.
Arts and literature
- Southern Rugby Union is established; renamed New South Wales Rugby Union in 1892
- Haricot wins the Melbourne Cup
- 2 March - Gregan McMahon
- 3 March - Ada Crossley
- 17 September - Walter Murdoch
- 17 October - Lionel Lindsay
- 1 February – Alexander Harris, soldier, teacher and author (b. 1805)
- 6 April – Michael Fenton, first Speaker of the Tasmanian House of Assembly (b. 1789)
- 17 May – Sir Roger Therry, jurist (b. 1800)
- date unknown