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|Centuries:||18th century – 19th century – 20th century|
|Decades:||1850s 1860s 1870s – 1880s – 1890s 1900s 1910s|
|Years:||1878 1879 1880 – 1881 – 1882 1883 1884|
|1881 in topic:|
|Archaeology – Architecture – Art – Literature – Music|
|Australia – Canada – France – Germany – Mexico – Philippines – South Africa – US – UK|
|Rail Transport – Science – Sports|
|Lists of leaders|
|Colonial Governors – State leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2634|
|British Regnal year||44 Vict. 1 – 45 Vict. 1|
— to —辛巳年十一月十一日
|- Vikram Samvat||1937–1938|
|- Shaka Samvat||1803–1804|
|- Kali Yuga||4982–4983|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||881–882|
|Japanese calendar||Meiji 14
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 12 days|
|Minguo calendar||31 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2424|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 1881|
Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar.
- January 16–January 24 – Siege of Geok Tepe: Russian troops under General Mikhail Skobelev defeat the Turkomans.
- January 24 – William Edward Forster, the chief secretary for Ireland, introduces his Coercion Bill, which temporarily suspended habeas corpus so that those people suspected of committing an offence could be detained without trial; it goes through a long debate before it is accepted February 2.
- January 25 – Thomas Edison and Alexander Graham Bell form the Oriental Telephone Company.
- February 2 – The Parkfield Earthquake occurs.
- February 5 – Phoenix, Arizona is incorporated.
- February 13 – The first issue of the feminist newspaper La Citoyenne is published by Hubertine Auclert.
- February 19 – Kansas becomes the first U.S. state to prohibit all alcoholic beverages.
- March 4 – Inauguration of James A. Garfield as President of the United States.
- March 12 – Andrew Watson makes his Scotland debut as the world's first black international football player.
- March 13 – Alexander II of Russia is killed near his palace when a bomb is thrown at him. He is succeeded by his son, Alexander III.
- March 23 – First Boer War comes to an end.
- April 11 – Spelman College is established.
- April 14 – The Four Dead in Five Seconds Gunfight erupts in El Paso, Texas.
- April 15 – Temuco, Chile is founded.
- April 15 – Anti-Semitic pogroms in Southern Russia start.
- April 21 – The University of Connecticut is founded as the Storrs Agricultural School.
- April 25 – Caulfield Grammar School is founded in Melbourne, Australia.
- April 28 – Billy the Kid escapes from his 2 jailers at the Lincoln County Jail in Mesilla, New Mexico, killing James Bell and Robert Ollinger before stealing a horse and riding out of town.
- May 10 – Romania is proclaimed kingdom, Prince Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen is crowned King of Romania (previously was only prince).
- May 12 – In North Africa, Tunisia becomes a French protectorate.
- May 13 – The Pacific island of Rotuma cedes to Great Britain, becoming a dependency of the Colony of Fiji.
- May 16 – In Berlin started first worldwide regular electric tram service.
- May 21 – The American Red Cross is established by Clara Barton.
- May 21 – The United States Tennis Association is established by a small group of tennis club members.
- June 12 – The USS Jeannette is crushed in an Arctic Ocean ice pack.
- June 20 – The current Cincinnati Reds baseball team plays its first game.
- July 1 – General Order 70, the culmination of the Cardwell-Childers reforms of the British Army's organization, comes into effect.
- July 2 – James Garfield, President of the United States, is shot by Charles Julius Guiteau. The wound becomes infected; killing Garfield on September 19.
- July 4 – In Alabama, the Tuskegee Institute opens.
- July 14 – Billy the Kid is shot and killed by Pat Garrett outside Fort Sumner.
- July 20 – American Indian Wars: Sioux chief Sitting Bull leads the last of his fugitive people in surrender to United States troops at Fort Buford in Montana.
- July 23 – The Boundary treaty of 1881 between Chile and Argentina is signed in Buenos Aires.
- August 3 – The Pretoria Convention peace treaty is signed, officially ending the war between the Boers and Britain.
- August 27 – The fifth hurricane of the Atlantic season hits Florida and the Carolinas, killing about 700.
- September 5 – The Thumb Fire in the U.S. state of Michigan destroys over a million acres (4,000 km²) and kills 282 people.
- September 12 – Francis Howell High School (Howell Institute) in St. Charles, Missouri, and Stephen F. Austin High School in Austin, Texas open on the same day, putting them in a tie for the title of the oldest public high school west of the Mississippi River.
- September 19 – U.S. President James A. Garfield dies eleven weeks after being shot. Vice President Chester A. Arthur becomes the 21st President of the United States.
- September 20 – U.S. President Chester A. Arthur is sworn in.
- September 26 – Godalming in England becomes the first town to have its streets illuminated by electric light (hydroelectrically generated).
- October 5–December 31 – International Cotton Exposition in Atlanta, Georgia
- October 10 – Richard D'Oyly Carte's Savoy Theatre opens in London, the world's first public building to be fully lit by electricity, using Joseph Swan's incandescent light bulbs. The stage is first lit electrically on December 28.
- October 13 – Determined to bring about the revival of the Hebrew language as a way of unifying Jews, Eliezer Ben-Yehuda had what is believed to be the first modern conversation in Hebrew while living in Paris.
- October 26 – The Gunfight at the O.K. Corral occurs in Tombstone, Cochise County, Arizona, USA.
- October 29 – Judge (U.S. magazine) is first published.
- November 11 – The Clarkson Memorial in Wisbech is completed and unveiled to the public.
- November 19 – A meteorite strikes earth near the village of Großliebenthal, a few kilometers southwest of Odessa, Ukraine.
- December 8 – Ringtheaterbrand: At least 380 die in a fire at the Vienna Ringtheater.
- December 28 – Virgil Earp is ambushed in Tombstone and loses the use of his left arm.
Date unknown 
- Kinshasa is founded by Henry Morton Stanley as a trading outpost called Léopoldville.
- New York City's oldest independent school for girls, the Convent of the Sacred Heart New York (91st Street), is founded.
- Edward Rudolf founds the 'Church of England Central Society for Providing Homes for Waifs and Strays' (now The Children's Society).
- The Pali Text Society is founded.
- University College Dublin is established in Ireland.
- The United States National Lawn Tennis Association (USNLTA) is founded, and the first U.S. Tennis Championships are played.
- The League of the Three Emperors is resurrected.
- Some Vatican archives are opened to scholars for the first time.
- Abilene, Texas is founded.
- The Newcastle United F.C. is founded as the Stanley F.C., with a further name change to Newcastle East End F.C. a few months later.
- The Leyton Orient F.C. is founded.
- Minto, North Dakota is founded.
- Rafaela, Argentina is formed.
- Culford School, a public school in Suffolk, United Kingdom, is founded.
- January 1 – Vajiravudh, King of Thailand (d. 1925)
- January 9
- January 15 – John Rodgers, American naval officer and naval aviation pioneer (d. 1926)
- January 17 – Antoni Lomnicki, Polish mathematician (d. 1941)
- January 21 – Arch McCarthy, American baseball player (d. unknown)
- January 31 – Irving Langmuir, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1957)
- February 12 – Anna Pavlova, Russian ballerina (d. 1931)
- February 17 – Beth Streeter Aldrich, American writer (d. 1954)
- February 28 – Otto Dowling, United States Navy Captain, and the 25th Governor of American Samoa (d. 1946)
- March 4
- March 9 – Ernest Bevin, British labour leader, politician, and statesman (d. 1951)
- March 10 – Thomas Quinlan (impresario) (d. 1951)
- March 17 – Walter Rudolf Hess, Swiss physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1973)
- March 23
- March 25
- March 26
- April 14 – Husain Salaahuddin, Famous Mahl writer (d. 1948)
- May 13 – Lima Barreto, Brazilian writer (d.1922)
- May 14 – G. Murray Hulbert, American politician (d. 1950)
- May 19 – Official birthday of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder and first President of Turkey (d. 1938)
- May 20 – Władysław Sikorski, Polish general and politician (d. 1943)
- May 30 – Georg von Küchler, German field marshal (d. 1968)
- June 17 – Tommy Burns, Canadian-born boxer (d. 1955)
- June 26 – Ya'akov Cohen, Israeli poet (d. 1960)
- July 2 – Royal H. Weller, American politician (d. 1929)
- July 4 – Ulysses S. Grant III, American soldier and planner (d. 1968)
- July 22 – Kenneth Whiting, United States Navy officer and submarine and naval aviation pioneer (d. 1943)
- July 27 – Hans Fischer, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1945)
- July 30 – Smedley Butler, United States Marine Corps general (d. 1940)
- August 3 – Nathan Post, 7th and 10th Governor of American Samoa (d. 1938)
- August 6 – Sir Alexander Fleming, Scottish researcher, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1955)
- August 7 – François Darlan, French admiral (d. 1942)
- August 8 – Paul Ludwig Ewald von Kleist, German field marshal (b. 1954)
- August 12 – Cecil B. DeMille, American film director and producer (d. 1959)
- August 19 – Georges Enescu, Romanian composer (d. 1955)
- August 20 – Edgar Guest, English poet (d. 1959)
- September 5 – Otto Bauer, Austrian Social Democratic politician (d. 1938)
- September 8 – Harry Hillman, American athlete (d. 1945)
- September 11 – Asta Nielsen, Danish silent film star (d. 1972)
- September 12 – Daniel Jones, British phonetician (d. 1967)
- September 15 – Ettore Bugatti, Italian Car Designer, Founder of Bugatti Automobiles (d. 1947)
- September 16 – Clive Bell, English art critic (d. 1964)
- September 17
- September 26 – Hiram Wesley Evans, Ku Klux Klan Imperial Wizard (d. 1966)
- September 29 – Ludwig von Mises, renowned Austrian economist (d. 1973)
- October 1 – William Boeing, American engineer and airplane manufacturer (d. 1956)
- October 4 – Walther von Brauchitsch, German field marshal (d. 1948)
- October 11 – Hans Kelsen, Austrian legal theorist (d. 1973)
- October 15
- October 22 – Clinton Davisson, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1958)
- October 25 – Pablo Picasso, Spanish painter (d. 1973)
- October 26 – Margaret Wycherly, English stage actress (d. 1956)
- October 28 – Vin Coutie, Australian footballer
- November 4 – Gaby Deslys, French dancer & actress (d. 1920)
- November 5 – George A. Malcolm, American jurist & educator (d. 1961)
- November 8 – Robert Esnault-Pelterie, French aircraft designer and pioneer rocket theorist (d. 1957)
- November 14 – Nicholas Schenck, Russian-born film studio executive (d. 1969)
- November 15 – Franklin Pierce Adams, American Poet, columnist (d. 1960)
- November 24 – Al Christie, Canadian-born director and producer (d. 1951)
- November 25
- November 28 – Stefan Zweig, Austrian writer (d. 1942)
- December 5 – René Cresté, French actor and director (d. 1922)
- December 3 – Henry Fillmore, American composer (d. 1956)
- December 12 – Doris Keane, American stage actress (d. 1945)
- December 24 – Juan Ramón Jiménez, Spanish writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1958)
- January 3 – Anna McNeill Whistler, James Whistler's mother and subject of his painting (b. 1804)
- January 21 – Wilhelm Matthias Naeff, member of the Swiss Federal Council (b. 1802)
- February 5 – Thomas Carlyle, Scottish writer and historian (b. 1795)
- February 9 – Fyodor Dostoevsky, Russian novelist (b. 1821)
- February 14 – Fernando Wood, New York City mayor (b. 1812)
- January 30 – Robert F. R. Lewis, American naval officer (b. 1826)
- March 13 – Czar Alexander II of Russia (assassinated) (b. 1818)
- March 28 – Modest Mussorgsky, Russian composer (b. 1839)
- April 19 – Benjamin Disraeli, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1804)
- May 24 – Samuel Palmer, English artist (b. 1805)
- May 25 – Giuseppe Maria Giulietti, Italian explorer (b. 1847)
- June 6 – Henri Vieuxtemps, Belgian composer (b. 1820)
- July 14 – Billy the Kid, American gunslinger (b. 1859)
- July 17 – Jim Bridger, American explorer and trapper (b. 1804)
- September 7 – Sidney Lanier, American writer (b. 1842)
- September 8 – Prince Frederik of the Netherlands, Dutch noble and general (b. 1797)
- September 19 – James A. Garfield, 20th President of the United States (assassinated) (b. 1831)
- September 22 – Solomon L. Spink, U.S. Congressman from Illinois (b. 1831)
- October 3 – Orson Pratt, American religious leader (b. 1811)
- October 31 – George DeLong, American naval officer and explorer (starvation) (b. 1844)
- "Godalming Power Station". Engineering Timelines. Retrieved 2010-07-06.
- Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 434–435. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
- "The Savoy Theatre". The Times (London). 1881-10-03. p. 7.
- Burgess, Michael (January 1975). "Richard D'Oyly Carte". The Savoyard: 7–11.
- "Savoy Theatre". The Times. 1881-12-29. p. 4. Retrieved 2012-01-30.