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|Centuries:||18th century – 19th century – 20th century|
|Decades:||1850s 1860s 1870s – 1880s – 1890s 1900s 1910s|
|Years:||1881 1882 1883 – 1884 – 1885 1886 1887|
|1884 in topic:|
|Archaeology – Architecture – Art – Literature – Music|
|Australia – Canada – France – Germany – Mexico – Philippines – South Africa – US – UK|
|Rail Transport – Science – Sports|
|Lists of leaders|
|Colonial Governors – State leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2637|
|British Regnal year||47 Vict. 1 – 48 Vict. 1|
— to —甲申年十一月十五日
|- Vikram Samvat||1940–1941|
|- Shaka Samvat||1806–1807|
|- Kali Yuga||4985–4986|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||884–885|
|Japanese calendar||Meiji 17
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 12 days|
|Minguo calendar||28 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2427|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 1884|
- January 4 – The Fabian Society is founded in London.
- January 5 – Gilbert & Sullivan's Princess Ida has its première at the Savoy Theatre, London.
- January 18 – Dr William Price attempts to cremate the body of his infant son, Iesu Grist (Jesus Christ) Price, setting a legal precedent for cremation in the U.K.
- February 1 – The first edition of the Oxford English Dictionary is published.
- February 5 – The Derby County Football Club is founded
- March 7 – The Diocese of Madrid-Alcalá is founded.
- March 13 – The siege of Khartoum, Sudan begins (ends on January 26, 1885).
- April 22 – The Colchester earthquake, England, the UK's most destructive, occurs.
- April 22 – German protectorate in South-West Africa.
- May 1 – The eight-hour workday is first proclaimed by the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions in the United States. May 1, called May Day or Labour Day, is now a holiday recognized in almost every industrialized country.
- May 16 – Angelo Moriondo of Turin is granted a patent for an espresso machine.
- June 4 – The Estonian flag is consecrated as the flag of the Estonian Students Society.
- July 5 – Germany takes possession of Togoland.
- July 14 – German administration in Cameroon.
- July 23 – Today's Courier records the first tennis tournaments held on the grounds of Shrubland Hall, Leamington Spa, England.
- August 5 – The cornerstone for the Statue of Liberty is laid on Bedloe's Island in New York Harbor.
- August 10 – A severe earthquake, magnitude 5.5, (intensity VII) occurs off the northeast Atlantic coast. The area affected extends from central Virginia to southern Maine, and west as far as Cleveland.
- August 22 – Sino–French War (for control of Tonkin) breaks out (continues to April 1885).
- August 23 – Sino–French War: Battle of Fuzhou: French Admiral Amédée Courbet's Far East Squadron virtually destroys China's Fujian Fleet.
- September 5 – Staten Island Academy is founded.
- September 15 – Medicine: The invention of local anaesthesia by Karl Koller was made public at a medical congress in Heidelberg, Germany
- October – International Meridian Conference in Washington, D.C. fixes the Greenwich meridian as the world's prime meridian.
- October 6 – The United States Naval War College is established in Newport, Rhode Island.
- October 18 – The University of Wales, Bangor (UK) is founded.
- October 22 – Letitia Alice Walkington becomes the first woman to receive a degree from the Royal University of Ireland.
- November 1 – The Irish Gaelic Athletic Association is founded in Thurles, Ireland.
- November 2 – Timişoara is the first town of Europe with streets illuminated by electric light.
- November 4 – United States presidential election, 1884: Democrat Grover Cleveland defeats Republican James G. Blaine in a very close contest to win the first of his non-consecutive terms.
- November 15 – The Berlin Conference which regulates European colonisation and trade in Africa begins (ends February 26, 1885).
- December 1
- American Old West: Near Frisco, New Mexico, deputy sheriff Elfego Baca holds off a gang of 80 Texan cowboys who want to kill him for arresting cowboy Charles McCarthy (the cowboys were terrorizing the area's Hispanos and Baca was working against them).
- Porfirio Díaz returns as President of Mexico, an office he will hold until 1911.
- December 6 – The Washington Monument is completed.
- December 16 – The World Cotton Centennial World's Fair opens in New Orleans, Louisiana.
Date unknown 
- The Stefan-Boltzmann law is reformulated by Ludwig Boltzmann.
- Mexican General Manuel Mondragón creates the Mondragón rifle, the worlds first automatic rifle.
- Mark Twain publishes The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.
- The first ascent is made of Castle Mountain by geologist Arthur Philemon Coleman.
- Scottish Plymouth Brethren missionary Frederick Stanley Arnot identifies the source of the Zambezi river, near Kalene Hill.
- The water hyacinth is introduced in the U.S. and quickly becomes an invasive species.
- Parliamentarism is introduced in Norway.
- The Yellow Crane Tower last burns in Wuhan.
- Leicester City Football Club is formed.
- The Third Reform Act widens the adult male electorate in the United Kingdom to around 60%.
- Police training schools are established in every prefecture in Japan.
- Reformers in Korea who admire the Meiji Restoration in Japan stage a coup with Japan's help. China intervens to rescue the king and help suppress the rebels. Afterward both China and Japan agree to withdraw their troops and military advisers.
- The first Christian missionary arrives in Korea.
- Economic depression in the USA.
- January 2 – Ben-Zion Dinur, Russian-born Israeli educator, historian and politician (d. 1973)
- January 12
- January 13 – Sophie Tucker, Russian-born singer and comedian (d. 1966)
- January 21 – Roger Nash Baldwin, American social activist (d. 1981)
- January 23 – Ralph DePalma, Italian-born race car driver (d. 1956)
- January 28 – Auguste Piccard, Swiss physicist, balloonist, and inventor (d. 1962)
- January 30 – Kamiyama Sojin, Japanese actor in American silent films, (d. 1954)
- January 31 – Theodor Heuss, German politician and publicist (d. 1963)
- February 1 – Bradbury Robinson, who threw the first forward pass in American football history in 1906 (d. 1949)
- February 8 – Burt Mustin, American actor (d. 1977)
- February 10 – Frederick Hawksworth, GWR chief mechanical engineer (d. 1976)
- February 12
- February 13 – Alfred Carlton Gilbert, American athlete and inventor (d. 1961)
- February 16 – Robert J. Flaherty, American filmmaker (d. 1951)
- February 18 – Andrew Watson Myles, Canadian politician (d. 1970)
- March 6 – R. Williams Parry, Welsh poet (d. 1956)
- March 13 – Sir Hugh Walpole, English novelist (d. 1941)
- March 17 – Alcide Nunez, American jazz musician (d. 1934)
- March 24 – Peter Debye, Dutch chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1966)
- March 25 – Georges Imbert, Alsatian chemist (d. 1950)
- March 26
- March 27 – James Cruze, American motion picture director (d. 1942)
- April 1 – Laurette Taylor, American stage actress (d. 1946)
- April 4 – Isoroku Yamamoto, Japanese naval commander (d. 1943)
- April 6 – Walter Huston, American actor (d. 1950)
- April 7 – Bronisław Malinowski, Polish anthropologist (d. 1942)
- April 12
- May 1 – Henry Norwest, Canadian World War I sniper (d. 1918)
- May 8 – Harry S. Truman, 33rd President of the United States (d. 1972)
- May 10 – Olga Petrova, English-born actress (d. 1977)
- May 14 – Claudius Dornier, German aircraft designer (d. 1969)
- May 20 – Leon Schlesinger, American producer and filmmaker (d. 1949)
- May 21 – Manuel Pérez y Curis, Uruguayan poet (b. 1920)
- May 27 – Max Brod, Austrian author (d. 1968)
- May 28 – Edvard Beneš, Czechoslovak politician (d. 1948)
- July 12 – Amedeo Modigliani, Italian painter and sculptor (d. 1920)
- July 15 – Phraya Manopakorn Nititada, Thailand's first Prime Minister (d. 1948)
- July 18 – Alberto di Jorio, former head of the Vatican Bank and secretary of the 1958 conclave (d. 1979)
- July 23 – Emil Jannings, Swiss actor (d. 1950)
- July 27 – Kathleen Howard, Canadian/American opera singer & character actress (d. 1956)
- August 8 – Sara Teasdale, American poet (d. 1933)
- August 9 – John S. McCain, Sr., American admiral (d. 1945)
- August 10 – Robert G. Fowler, American pioneer aviator (d. 1966)
- August 10 – Panait Istrati, Romanian writer (d. 1935)
- August 15 – Mary Nash, American actress (d. 1976)
- August 23 – Will Cuppy, American humorist (d. 1949)
- August 27 – Harry Antrim, American actor (d. 1967)
- August 30 – Theodor Svedberg, Swedish chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1971)
- September 1 – Richard C. Saufley, American naval aviation pioneer (d. 1916)
- September 17 – Charles Tomlinson Griffes, American composer (d. 1920)
- September 24
- September 30 – Bessie Barriscale, American actress (d. 1965)
- October 7 – Major Harold Geiger, U.S. Army aviation pioneer (d. 1927)
- October 11
- October 16 – Rembrandt Bugatti, Italian sculptor (d. 1916)
- October 28 – William Douglas Cook, founder of Eastwoodhill Arboretum and Pukeiti (New Zealand) (d. 1967)
- November 20 – Norman Thomas, American social reformer (d. 1968)
- November 22 – Syed Sulaiman Nadvi, Indian/Pakistani historian, biographer, littérateur and scholar of Islam (d. 1953)
- December 3
- December 25 – Evelyn Nesbit, model & actress, (d. 1967)
- December 30 – Tojo Hideki, Prime Minister of Japan (d. 1948)
Date unknown 
- M. Louise Gross, American politician and lobbyist (d. 1951)
- Wyncie King, American illustrator (d. 1961)
- Richard Spikes, African American inventor (d. 1962)
- January 6 – Gregor Mendel, Czech geneticist (b. 1822)
- January 25 – Johann Gottfried Piefke, German conductor and composer (b. 1815)
- February 8 – Cetshwayo kaMpande, Zulu king (b. 1826)
- February 14 – Alice Hathaway Lee Roosevelt, first wife of Theodore Roosevelt (b. 1861)
- March 1 – Isaac Todhunter, English mathematician (b. 1820)
- March 13 – Leland Stanford, Jr., in memory of whom Stanford University was founded (b. 1868).
- March 19 – Elias Lönnrot, Finnish philologist and collector of traditional Finnish oral poetry (b. 1802).
- March 21 – Ezra Abbot, American Bible scholar (b. 1819)
- March 28 – Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany, youngest son of Queen Victoria (b. 1853)
- April 4 – Marie Bashkirtseff, Russian artist (b. 1858)
- April 6 – Emanuel Geibel, poet and dramatist (b. 1815)
- April 24 – Marie Taglioni, ballerina (b. 1804)
- May 12 – Bedřich Smetana, Czech composer (b. 1824)
- May 13 – Cyrus McCormick, American inventor (b. 1809)
- June 19 – Juan Bautista Alberdi, Argentine politician, writer and main Constitution promoter (b. 1810)
- June 21 – Alexander, Prince of Orange, Heir apparent to the Dutch throne (b. 1851)
- June 25 – Hans Rott, Austrian composer (b. 1858)
- July 1 – Allan Pinkerton, American detective (b. 1819)
- July 10 – Paul Morphy, American chess player (b. 1837)
- July 15 – Henry Wellesley, 1st Earl Cowley, diplomat (b. 1804)
- October 4 – Leona Florentino, Filipina poet (b. 1849)
- October 16 – Bernice Pauahi Bishop, Hawaiian ali‘i (b. 1831)
- October 18 – William VIII, Duke of Brunswick (b. 1806)
- November 16 – František Chvostek, Moravian physician (b. 1835)
- November 25 – Adolph Wilhelm Hermann Kolbe, German chemist (b. 1818)
- December 1 – William Swainson (lawyer), second, and last, Attorney-General (New Zealand) of the Crown Colony of New Zealand (b. 1809)
- December 20 – Domenico Consolini, Roman Catholic Cardinal (b. 1806)
- #33/256. Bollettino delle privative industriali del Regno d’Italia 2nd Series 15 (1884) pp. 635–655.