1885 in science
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|List of years in science (table)|
|... 1875 . 1876 . 1877 . 1878 . 1879 . 1880 . 1881 ...
1882 1883 1884 -1885- 1886 1887 1888
... 1889 . 1890 . 1891 . 1892 . 1893 . 1894 . 1895 ...
|Art . Archaeology . Architecture . Literature . Music . Philosophy . Science +...|
- August 20 – Ernst Hartwig discovers S Andromedae, a supernova in the Andromeda galaxy, the first supernova discovered beyond the Milky Way.
- The genus Plasmodium is described by Ettore Marchiafava and Angelo Celli.
- The bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli) is discovered by Theodor Escherich.
- Carl Auer von Welsbach patents his first incandescent gas mantle.
- Eugene Goldstein names the cathode ray, later discovered to be composed of electrons, and the canal ray, later discovered to be positive hydrogen ions that had been stripped of their electrons in a cathode ray tube. These would later be named protons.
- Eduard Suess begins publication in Vienna of his Das Antlitz der Erde setting out his theory of eustasy, the existence of the former supercontinent Gondwana, and his pioneering concepts in ecology.
- January 4 – The first successful appendectomy is performed by Dr. William W. Grant on Mary Gartside.
- July 6 – Louis Pasteur and Émile Roux successfully test their rabies vaccine. The patient is Joseph Meister, a boy bitten by a rabid dog.
- Georges Gilles de la Tourette publishes an account of nine patients with what will become known as Tourette syndrome.
- January 15 – American photographer Wilson Bentley takes the first known photograph of a snowflake by attaching a view camera to a microscope.
- Johann Balmer publishes an empirical mathematical formula for the visible spectral lines of the hydrogen atom.
- Hermann Ebbinghaus publishes Über das Gedächtnis ("On Memory", later translated as Memory: a Contribution to Experimental Psychology).
- April 3 – Gottlieb Daimler is granted a German patent for his single-cylinder water-cooled engine design.
- September 30 – Tolbert Lanston makes his first application for a United States patent on a typesetting system which includes the basic Monotype System keyboard.
- Autumn – Karl Benz produces the Benz Patent-Motorwagen, regarded as the first automobile (patented and publicly launched the following January).
- Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach produce the Daimler Reitwagen, regarded as the first motorcycle.
- John Kemp Starley demonstrates the Rover safety bicycle, regarded as the first practical modern bicycle.
- The first, not yet practical, form of gyrocompass is patented by Marinus Gerardus van den Bos.
- Rufus Eastman patents the first known electric food mixer.
- Completion of the Home Insurance Building in Chicago, designed by William Le Baron Jenney. With ten floors and a fireproof weight-bearing metal frame, it is regarded as the first skyscraper.
- Completion of Sway Tower in Hampshire, England, designed by Andrew Peterson using concrete made with Portland cement. It remains the world's tallest non-reinforced concrete structure.
- October 13 – The Georgia Institute of Technology is established in Atlanta (United States) as the as the Georgia School of Technology to teach mechanical engineering.
- January 24 – Marjory Stephenson (died 1948), English biochemist
- January 26 – Harry Ricardo (died 1974), English mechanical engineer
- June 2 – Hans Gerhard Creutzfeldt (died 1964), German neuropathologist
- August 1 – George de Hevesy (died 1966), Hungarian Nobel laureate in chemistry
- October 7 – Niels Bohr (died 1962), Danish physicist
- October 23 – Jan Czochralski (died 1953), Polish discoverer of the Czochralski process for growing crystals
- October 26 – Niels Erik Nørlund (died 1981), Danish mathematician
- November 7 – Sabina Spielrein (k. 1942), Russian psychoanalyst
- November 9 – Hermann Weyl (died 1955), German mathematician
- December 2 – George Minot (died 1950), American Nobel laureate in physiology
- June 12 – Fleeming Jenkin (born 1833), English engineer
- November 26 – Thomas Andrews (born 1813), Irish chemist
- Feng, P.; Weagant, S.; Grant, M. (2002-09-01). "Enumeration of Escherichia coli and the Coliform Bacteria". Bacteriological Analytical Manual (8th ed.). FDA/Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
- "History of Chemistry". Intensive General Chemistry. Columbia University Department of Chemistry Undergraduate Program. Retrieved 2007-03-24.
- 1885–1908, 3 vols in 4. OCLC 2903551.
- Gilles de la Tourette (1885). "Etude sur une affection nerveuse charactérisée par de l'incoordination motrice accompagnée d'écholalie et de coprolalie (jumping, latah, myriachit)". Archives de neurologie (Paris) 9: 19–42. Retrieved 2011-04-11.
- Magie, William Francis (1969). A Source Book in Physics. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. p. 360.
- O'Connor, J. J.; Robertson, E. F. (2000). "Johann Jakob Balmer". MacTutor History of Mathematics archive. University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2011-10-28.
- Benz, Carl Friedrich (1925). Lebensfahrt eines deutschen erfinders; erinnerungen eines achtzigjahrigen. Leipzig: Koehler & Amelang.
- Gardiner, Mark (1997). Classic motorcycles. MetroBooks. p. 16. ISBN 1-56799-460-1.
- Brown, Roland (2005). The Ultimate History of Fast Motorcycles. Bath: Parragon. p. 6. ISBN 1-4054-5466-0.
- Wilson, Hugo (1993). The Ultimate Motorcycle Book. Dorling Kindersley. pp. 8–9. ISBN 1-56458-303-1.
- "Icons of Invention: Rover safety bicycle, 1885". Making the Modern World. Science Museum (London). Archived from the original on 22 May 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-27.
- Galison, Peter (1987). How Experiments End. University of Chicago Press. pp. 34–37. ISBN 978-0-226-27915-2. Retrieved 2012-02-18.
- U.S. Patent 330,829.
- Katz, Solomon H.; Weaver, William Woys, ed. (2003). Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. 2, Food production to Nuts. New York: Scribner. pp. 323–333. ISBN 0684805669.
- Vegetarian Times. October 2002. pp. 69–70.
- "Home Insurance Building". SkyscraperPage. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-27.
- James, J. (1997). All about Sway Tower. Lymington: Lymington Museum Trust.
- Trout, Edwin (October 2002). "Sway Tower: an early example of high-rise concrete construction". Concrete: 64–5.