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This article is about the year 1890.
|Centuries:||18th century – 19th century – 20th century|
|Decades:||1860s 1870s 1880s – 1890s – 1900s 1910s 1920s|
|Years:||1887 1888 1889 – 1890 – 1891 1892 1893|
|1890 in topic:|
|Archaeology – Architecture – Art – Literature – Music|
|Australia – Brazil - Canada – France – Germany – Mexico – Philippines – South Africa – United Kingdom – United States|
|Rail Transport – Science – Sports|
|Lists of leaders|
|Colonial Governors – State leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2643|
|British Regnal year||53 Vict. 1 – 54 Vict. 1|
|Chinese calendar||己丑年 (Earth Ox)
4586 or 4526
— to —
庚寅年 (Metal Tiger)
4587 or 4527
|- Vikram Samvat||1946–1947|
|- Shaka Samvat||1812–1813|
|- Kali Yuga||4991–4992|
|Japanese calendar||Meiji 23
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 12 days|
|Minguo calendar||22 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2433|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1890.|
- January 1
- January 2
- January 11 – 1890 British Ultimatum: the United Kingdom demands Portugal withdraw its forces from the land between the Portuguese colonies of Mozambique and Angola (most of present-day Zimbabwe and Zambia)
- January 15 – The Sleeping Beauty (ballet) with music by Tchaikovsky is premiered at the Imperial Mariinsky Theatre in St Petersburg, Russia.
- January 25
- February 9 – The Weather Bureau is established within Department of Agriculture.
- February 17[dubious ] – The British steamship Duburg is wrecked in the South China Sea: 400 lives are lost.
- February 24 – Chicago is selected to host the Columbian Exposition
- March 1
- March 3 – The first American football game in Ohio State University history is played in Delaware, Ohio, against Ohio Wesleyan, with the Ohio State Buckeyes winning 20–14.
- March 4 – The Forth Bridge across the Firth of Forth in Scotland is opened to rail traffic.
- March 8 – North Dakota State University is founded in Fargo.
- March 20 – Kaiser Wilhelm II dismisses Otto von Bismarck.
- March 27 – A tornado strikes Louisville, Kentucky, killing 76 people and injuring 200.
- March 28 – Washington State University is founded in Pullman.
- April 14 – Commercial Bureau of the American Republics.
- May 12 – The first ever official English County Championship cricket match begins in Bristol; Yorkshire beats Gloucestershire by 8 wickets.
- May 20 – Dutch artist Vincent van Gogh moves to Auvers-sur-Oise on the edge of Paris in the care of Dr Paul Gachet where he will produce around seventy paintings in as many days.
- May 31 – The 5-story skylight Arcade opens in Cleveland, Ohio.
- June 1 – The United States Census Bureau begins using Herman Hollerith's tabulating machine to tabulate census returns using punched card input, a landmark in the history of computing hardware. Hollerith's company eventually becomes IBM.
- June 12 – In Michigan, the wooden steamer Ryan is lost near Thunder Bay Island.
- June 20 – The Picture of Dorian Gray by Oscar Wilde published by Philadelphia-based Lippincott's Monthly Magazine (dated July).
- June 27 – Canadian-born boxer George Dixon defeats the British bantamweight champion in London, giving him claim to be the first black world champion in any sport.
- July – Politics of Japan: In the first general election for the House of Representatives of Japan, about 5% of the adult male population elect a lower house of the Diet of Japan.
- July 1 – Heligoland–Zanzibar Treaty is signed by Great Britain and Germany.
- July 2 – The Sherman Antitrust Act and Sherman Silver Purchase Act become United States law.
- July 3 – Idaho is admitted as the 43rd U.S. state.
- July 10 – Wyoming is admitted as the 44th U.S. state.
- July 13 – In Minnesota, storms result in the Sea Wing disaster on Lake Pepin killing 98.
- July 14 – First recorded use of lime-green to describe a color.
- July 26 – In Buenos Aires, the Revolution of the Park takes place, forcing President Juárez Celman's resignation.
- July 27 – Death of Vincent van Gogh: van Gogh apparently shoots himself, dying two days later.
- August 6 – At Auburn Prison in New York, William Kemmler becomes the first person to be executed in the electric chair after intense lobbying by Thomas Edison in an effort to discredit alternating current (AC) in favor of direct current (DC) as the safer way to wire cities; after the execution was botched, cooking Kemmler alive, horrifying witnesses, the public turned on Edison instead, backfiring on him and helping George Westinghouse in his effort to win major contracts for AC.
- August 20 – Treaty of London: Portugal and the United Kingdom define the borders of the Portuguese colonies of Mozambique and Angola.
- August Kaiser Wilhelm II and Tsar Alexander III meet at Narva.
- September 19 – The Turkish frigate Ertuğrul founders off Japan; 540 lives are lost.
- October 9 – The first brief flight of Clément Ader's steam-powered fixed-wing aircraft Ader Éole takes place in Satory, France. It flies uncontrolled approximately 50 m (160 ft) at a height of 20 cm, the first take-off of a powered airplane solely under its own power.
- October 11 – In Washington, D.C., the Daughters of the American Revolution is founded.
- October 13
- November 4 – The first deep level London Underground (Tube) Railway named the City and South London Railway opens officially.
- November 21 – Edward King, Anglican bishop of Lincoln, is convicted of using ritualistic practices.
- November 23 – King William III of the Netherlands dies without a male heir, and his daughter Princess Wilhelmina becomes Queen, causing Luxembourg (who required a male heir) to declare independence.
- November 29
- November – Scotland Yard, headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service, moves to a building on London's Victoria Embankment, as the New Scotland Yard.
- December 15 – Hunkpapa Lakota leader Sitting Bull killed on Standing Rock Indian Reservation.
- December 27 – The British steamship Shanghai burns in the East China Sea off the coast of Anhui Province; 101 lives are lost.
- December 29 – Wounded Knee Massacre: At Wounded Knee, South Dakota, a Native American camp, the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment tries to disperse the non-violent "Ghost-Dance" which was promised to usher in a new era of power and freedom to Native Americans but was feared as a potential rallying tool for violent rebellion by some in the U.S. government. Shooting begins, and 153 Lakota Sioux and 25 troops are killed; about 150 flee the scene. This was the last tribe to be defeated and the beginning of the decline of both the American Indian Wars and the American frontier.
- The folding carton box is invented by Robert Gair, a Brooklyn printer who developed production of paper-board boxes in 1879.
- The United States city of Boise, Idaho, drills the first geothermal well.
- Brown trout are introduced into the upper Firehole River in Yellowstone National Park.
- High School Cadets is written by John Philip Sousa.
- William II of Prussia opposes Bismarck's attempt to renew the law outlawing the Social Democratic Party.
- Blackwall Buildings, Whitechapel, noted philanthropic housing, is built in the East End of London.
- English archaeologist Flinders Petrie excavates at Tell el-Hesi, Palestine (mistakenly identified as Lachish), the first scientific excavation of an archaeological site in the Holy Land, during which he discovers how tells are formed.
- American geostrategist Alfred Thayer Mahan publishes his influential book The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783.
- Francis Galton announces a statistical demonstration of the uniqueness and classifiability of individual human fingerprints.
- Alfred Tucker becomes Anglican Bishop of Eastern Equatorial Africa.
- January 1 – Anton Melik, Slovenian geographer (d. 1966)
- January 5 – Sarah Aaronsohn, member of the Jewish spy ring Nili (d. 1917)
- January 4 – Victor Lustig, Bohemian-born con artist (d. 1947)
- January 9
- January 11 – Oswald de Andrade, Brazilian Modernist writer (d.1954)
- January 19 – Élise Rivet, French Roman Catholic nun and war heroine (d. 1945)
- January 22 – Fred M. Vinson, Chief Justice of the United States (d. 1953)
- January 28 – Robert Franklin Stroud, Birdman of Alcatraz (d. 1963)
- February 10 – Boris Pasternak, Russian writer (Doctor Zhivago), Nobel Prize laureate (declined) (d. 1960)
- February 14 – Nina Hamnett, Welsh artist (d. 1956)
- February 15 – Matome Ugaki, Japanese admiral (d. 1945)
- February 16 – Francesco de Pinedo, Italian aviator (d. 1933)
- February 17 – Ronald Fisher, English biologist (d. 1962)
- February 18
- February 24 – Marjorie Main, American actress (d. 1975)
- February 25 – Dame Myra Hess, English pianist (d. 1965)
- February 27 – Freddie Keppard, American jazz musician (d. 1933)
- March 3 – Norman Bethune, Canadian doctor and humanitarian (d. 1939)
- March 9
- March 11 – Vannevar Bush, American engineer, inventor, and politician (d. 1974)
- March 20
- March 28 – Paul Whiteman, American bandleader (d. 1967)
- March 31 – William Lawrence Bragg, English physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1971)
- April 6 – Anthony Fokker, Dutch aircraft manufacturer (d. 1939)
- April 7
- April 13 – Dadasaheb Torne, Indian filmmaker (d. 1960)
- April 11 – Rachele Mussolini, Italian, wife of Benito Mussolini (d. 1979)
- April 15 – Percy Shaw, British inventor (d. 1976)
- April 16
- April 17 – Victor Chapman, French-American fighter pilot (d. 1916)
- April 20
- April 21 – Michitaro Totsuka, Japanese admiral (d. 1966)
- April 26 – Edgar Kennedy, American comedic actor (d. 1948)
- May 1 – Laurence Wild, 1913 NCAA Men's Basketball All-American, former head coach for the Navy Midshipmen men's basketball, and 30th Governor of American Samoa (d. 1971)
- May 4 – Franklin Carmichael, Canadian artist (d. 1945)
- May 10 – Alfred Jodl, German general (executed) (d. 1946)
- May 11 – Woodall Rodgers, mayor of Dallas, Texas (d. 1961)
- May 15 – Katherine Anne Porter, American author (d. 1980)
- May 19 – Ho Chi Minh, Prime minister/President of North Vietnam (d. 1969)
- May 23 – Herbert Marshall, English actor (d. 1966)
- June 1 – Frank Morgan, American actor (d. 1949)
- June 6 – Ted Lewis, American jazz musician and entertainer (d. 1971)
- June 10 – William A. Seiter, American film director (d. 1964)
- June 12 – Junius Matthews, American actor (d. 1978)
- June 16 – Stan Laurel, British actor (d. 1965)
- June 25 – Charlotte Greenwood, American actress (d. 1977)
- June 26
- June 28 – William H. P. Blandy, American admiral (d. 1954)
- June 30 – Paul Boffa, 5th Prime Minister of Malta (d. 1962)
- July 18 – Frank Forde, Australian Prime Minister (d. 1983)
- July 20 – Verna Felton, American character actress (d. 1966)
- July 22 – Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy, American philanthropist and matriarch of the Kennedy family (d. 1995)
- July 26 – Daniel J. Callaghan, American admiral and Medal of Honor recipient (d. 1942)
- August 2 – Marin Sais, American film actress (d. 1971)
- August 3 – Konstantin Melnikov, Russian avant-garde architect (d. 1974)
- August 4 – Erich Weinert, German writer and political activist (d. 1953)
- August 5 – Erich Kleiber, Austrian conductor (d. 1956)
- August 10
- August 15
- August 18 – Walther Funk, German politician (d. 1960)
- August 20 – H. P. Lovecraft, American writer (d. 1937)
- August 22 – Hans-Joachim Buddecke, German World War I fighter pilot and ace (d. 1918)
- August 24 – Duke Kahanamoku, American swimmer (d. 1968)
- September 7 – Harland Sanders, Founder of KFC (d. 1980)
- September 8 – Dorothy Price, Irish physician (d. 1954)
- September 10
- September 15
- September 20
- September 21 – Max Immelmann, German World War I fighter ace (d. 1916)
- September 23
- October 1
- October 2 – Groucho Marx, American comedian (d. 1977)
- October 8 – Eddie Rickenbacker, American WWI fighter pilot (d. 1973)
- October 13 – Conrad Richter, American novelist and short story writer (d. 1968)
- October 14 – Dwight David Eisenhower, U.S. general and President of the United States (d. 1969)
- October 16
- October 17 – Roy Kilner, English cricketer (d. 1928)
- October 25 – Floyd Bennett, American aviator and explorer (d. 1928)
- October 29 – Hans-Valentin Hube, German army general (d. 1944)
- November 7 – Jan Matulka, American painter (d. 1972)
- November 20 – Leon Cadore, American baseball pitcher (d. 1968)
- November 22 – Charles de Gaulle, President of France (d. 1970)
- November 23 – El Lissitzky, Russian artist and architect (d. 1941)
- December 5 – David Bomberg, English painter (d. 1957)
- December 6 – Dion Fortune, British writer (d. 1946)
- December 8 – Bohuslav Martinů, Czech composer (d. 1959)
- December 10 – Henry Louis Larsen, American Marine Corp General; Governor of American Samoa and Governor of Guam (d. 1962)
- December 11 – Carlos Gardel, Argentine tango singer (d. 1935)
- December 20 – Jaroslav Heyrovský, Czech chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1967)
- December 21 – Hermann Joseph Muller, American geneticist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1967)
- December 25 – Robert Ripley, collector of odd facts (d. 1949)
- December 26 – Uncle Charlie Osborne, Appalachian fiddler (d. 1992)
- December 30 – Lanoe Hawker, British fighter pilot (d. 1916)
- January 7 – Augusta of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Empress Consort of William I, German Emperor (b. 1811)
- January 18 – King Amadeus I of Spain (b. 1845)
- February 22
- March 3 – Innocenzo da Berzo, Capuchin friar (b. 1844)
- March 7 – Karl Rudolf Friedenthal, Prussian statesman (b. 1827)
- March 9 – Sir Mangaldas Nathubhoy, Indian politician (b. 1832)
- March 16 – Princess Zorka of Montenegro (b. 1864)
- April 1 – David Wilber, American politician (b. 1820)
- April 1 – Alexander Mozhaysky, Russian aeronautical pioneer (b. 1825)
- April 11 – Joseph Merrick (The Elephant Man), English oddity (b. 1862)
- June 24 – Subba Row, Hindu theosophist (b. 1856)
- June 30 – Samuel Parkman Tuckerman, American composer (b. 1819)
- July 9 – Clinton B. Fisk, American philanthropist and temperance activist (b. 1828)
- July 13
- July 15 – Gottfried Keller, Swiss writer (b. 1819)
- July 29 – Vincent van Gogh, Dutch painter (b. 1853)
- August 11 – John Henry Newman, English Roman Catholic Cardinal (b. 1801)
- October 4 – Catherine Booth, Mother of The Salvation Army (b. 1829)
- October 20 – Richard Francis Burton, English explorer, linguist, soldier (b. 1820)
- October 26 – Carlo Collodi, Italian writer (The Adventures of Pinocchio) (b. 1826)
- November 3 – Ulrich Ochsenbein, member of the Swiss Federal Council (b. 1811)
- November 4 – Félix du Temple de la Croix, French Army Captain & aviation pioneer (b. 1823)
- November 8 – César Franck, Belgian composer and organist (b. 1822)
- November 11 – Marie-Charles David de Mayréna, French adventurer and self-styled King of Sedang (b. 1842)
- November 23 – King William III of the Netherlands (b. 1817)
- November 24 – August Belmont, Sr., Prussian-born financier (b. 1816)
- December 15 – Sitting Bull, Native American chief (b. c. 1831)
- December 21 – Johanne Luise Heiberg, Danish actress (b. 1812)
- December 26 – Heinrich Schliemann, German archaeologist (b. 1822)
- December 31 – Pancha Carrasco, Costa Rican war heroine (b. 1826)
- Comanche, horse, survivor of Custer's cavalry at the Battle of the Little Bighorn
- Ann Leah Underhill, one of the Fox sisters (b. 1814)
- "Full List of Thunder Bay Region Shipwrecks (by name)". MSU Sea Grant Extension, Northeast District, Michigan State University. 2000.
- "Many Great Liners Paid Toll Of The Sea; Republic Was First to Utilize the Wireless in Calls for Aid". The New York Times. 16 April 1912. Retrieved 2011-09-14.
- "This Day in History: 1890". History.com. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved 2009-10-27.
- "A Steamer and 400 Lives Lost". Otago Times. 17 January 1890. Retrieved 2012-05-06.
- "Dixon, George (Little Chocolate)". Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online. University of Toronto; Université Laval. 2000. Retrieved 2012-01-23.
- The Daily News (London). "lime, n2.". Oxford English Dictionary online version. Oxford University Press. September 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-15. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
- Crouch, Tom D. "Clément Ader". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2011-03-03.
- Gray, Carroll (1998–2003). "Clement Ader 1841–1925". Flying Machines. Retrieved 2011-03-03.
- Gibbs-Smith, Charles H. (1959). "Hops and Flights: A Roll Call of Early Powered Take-offs". Flight 75: 468. Retrieved 2011-03-03.
- "Read And Others V. The Lord Bishop Of Lincoln: Court Of The Archbishop Of Canterbury, Lambeth Palace, Nov. 21". The Times (33176) (London). 1890-11-22. p. 4.
- Two Hundred Drowned - Panic among the Chinese on the burned steamer Shanghai
- Galton, Francis (1891). "The Patterns in Thumb and Finger Marks – On Their Arrangement into Naturally Distinct Classes, the Permanence of the Papillary Ridges that Make Them, and the Resemblance of Their Classes to Ordinary Genera". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 182: 1–23. doi:10.1098/rstb.1891.0001. JSTOR 91733.
- "Eighteen Years in Uganda and East Africa". World Digital Library. 1908. Retrieved 2013-09-24.