1891 in Australia
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- Premier of New South Wales - Henry Parkes (until 23 October) then George Dibbs
- Premier of South Australia - Thomas Playford II
- Premier of Queensland - Samuel Griffith
- Premier of Tasmania - Philip Fysh
- Premier of Western Australia - John Forrest
- Premier of Victoria - James Munro
- 5 January - The 1891 Australian shearers' strike begins, which leads to the formation of the Australian Labor Party.
- 13 April - Howard Moffat founds newspaper Daily Commercial News, which runs for 108 years before merging with Lloyd's List Australia Weekly to form Lloyd's List DCN.
- 17 June - The Labor party first entered the New South Wales Legislative Assembly with 35 members elected.
- 9 October - The ceremonial mace is stolen from Victoria's Parliament House, Melbourne.
- Malvolio wins the Melbourne Cup
- 30 April – Pat O'Hara Wood, tennis player (died 1961)
- 26 September – William McKell, Premier of NSW and Governor General of Australia (died 1985)
- 25 December (in New Zealand) – Clarrie Grimmett, cricketer (died 1980)
- 8 May - John Robertson (born 1816), Premier of New South Wales
- 29 October - Edward Hargraves (born 1816), gold prospector
- 7 December - Arthur Blyth (born 1823), Premier of South Australia