1894 Michigan Wolverines football team

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1894 Michigan Wolverines football
1894 Michigan Wolverines football team.jpg
Conference Independent
1894 record 9–1–1
Head coach William McCauley (1st year)
Captain James Baird
Home stadium Regents Field
Seasons
« 1893 1895 »

The 1894 Michigan Wolverines football team represented the University of Michigan in the 1894 college football season. The team, with William McCauley as head coach, compiled a 9–1–1 record and outscored its opponents by a combined score of 244 to 84.[1] The Wolverines played a home-and-away series with Cornell, losing at Ithaca and winning the second game in Detroit. The win over Cornell "marked the first time in collegiate football history that a western school defeated an established power from the east."[2] The Wolverines closed the season with a victory over Amos Alonzo Stagg's University of Chicago Maroons.

Schedule[edit]

Date Time Opponent Site Result Attendance
October 6, 1894 Michigan Military Academy Regents FieldAnn Arbor, MI T 12–12    
October 13, 1894 Albion Regents Field • Ann Arbor, MI W 26–10    
October 17, 1894 Olivet Regents Field • Ann Arbor, MI W 48–0    
October 21, 1894 Michigan Military Academy Regents Field • Ann Arbor, MI W 40–6    
October 24, 1894 Adrian Regents Field • Ann Arbor, MI W 46–0    
October 28, 1894 Case Regents Field • Ann Arbor, MI W 18–8    
November 3, 1894 at Cornell Ithaca, NY L 0–22    
November 10, 1894 vs. Kansas Exposition ParkKansas City, MO W 22–12   5,000
November 17, 1894 Oberlin Regents Field • Ann Arbor, MI W 14–6   2,200
November 24, 1894 2:30 PM vs. Cornell Detroit Athletic Club Field • Detroit, MI W 12–4   4,000
November 29, 1894 11:00 a.m. at Chicago Marshall FieldChicago, IL W 6–4   6,000
All times are in Eastern Time.

Pre-season[edit]

Trainer Keene Fitzpatrick came to Ann Arbor in 1894 and became known as "one of the pioneers of intercollegiate sport."

Prior to the 1894 season, three individuals took charge of the Michigan football program—each of whom would play an important role in its development. The first was Charles A. Baird, manager of the football team who later became Michigan's first athletic director and was the person who hired Fielding H. Yost in 1901. In 1894, Baird hired William McCauley, who had played at the tackle position on Princeton's championship team in 1893, as Michigan's head football coach. In two years as Michigan's head coach, McCauley led the Wolverines to a 17-2-1 record. The third member of Michigan's football triumvirate in 1894 was Keene Fitzpatrick, a nationally known track coach, who Baird hired as the football team's trainer. Baird's hiring of McCauley and Fitzpatrick led to a heightened level of interest in the football team. The Michigan Alumnus described the impact of the new coaching staff:

"The work of both of these enthusiasts can be seen in the practice of the team from day to day. At a mass meeting held last month great enthusiasm was shown by students, and several hundred dollars was [sic] raised for the team. Thus, for the first time in the history of Michigan football, the manager was able to secure the necessary equipment for a first-class eleven. Lack of money has been the cry hitherto."[3]

Several players returned in 1894 from the 1893 team, including quarterback and team captain Jimmy Baird, halfbacks Gustave Ferbert, Horace Dyer, and George Dygert, guard "Pa" Heninger, center C. H. Smith, end Henry Senter, and tackle Giovanni "Count" Villa.

Game notes[edit]

Michigan 12, Michigan Military Academy 12[edit]

Center and 1893 team captain C.H. Smith

The Michigan football team opened the 1894 season on October 6, 1894, with its first of two games against the Michigan Military Academy from Orchard Lake, Michigan. The game was played at Regents Field and ended in a 12–12 tie. The Inlander, a monthly magazine published by the students at the University of Michigan, noted that the team had been training for only four days, and the result was "quite a disappointment for those interested in the team."[4] The Michigan Alumnus also blamed the result on lack of training, noting that the team did not commence practice until October 1, and concluding that the Academy's Cadets "had the advantage of longer training, and played a quick, snappy game."[3]

Michigan 26, Albion 10[edit]

After the tie with the Michigan Military Academy, the Wolverines rolled to five consecutive by a combined score of 178 to 24. The first win of the season came against Albion College by a score of 26 to 10. The game was the 11th meeting between the Michigan and Adrian football teams with Michigan winning ten games and Albion winning one. As of 1894, Michigan had played more games against Albion than any other team.[5]

Michigan 48, Olivet 0[edit]

1895 team captain "Pa" Henninger scored two touchdowns against Olivet.

On October 17, 1894, Michigan defeated the team from Olivet College by a score of 48 to 0. The game was the second and final meeting between Michigan and Olivet. Michigan won the first game in 1891 by a score of 18 to 6.[6] After lackluster performances in the first two games of the 1894 season, Michigan won convincingly over Olivet. The Detroit Free Press wrote that, following the lopsided win, "[t]he croakers are silent to-night."[7] Olivet gained positive yardage on only 10 plays in the entire game and gained the required five yards for a first down only three times. Michigan scored five touchdowns in the first half and four in the second half. Michigan's touchdowns were scored by Henninger (2) Ferbert (2), Villa (2), Richards (1), Leonard (1), and Yont (1).[7]

Michigan's starting lineup was made up of Greenleaf (left end), Villa (left tackle), Carr (left guard), Smith (center), Henninger (right guard), Yont (right tackle), Hadden (right end), Baird (quarterback), Ferbert (left halfback), Richards (right halfback), and Dyer (fullback). Substitutions were Ninde for Carr, Leonard for Ferbert, and Freund for Richards.[7]

Michigan 40, Michigan Military Academy 6[edit]

On October 21, 1894, Michigan played its second game of the season against the Michigan Military Academy. After playing the Michigan Military Academy to a 12-12 tie in the season opener, the Wolverines defeated the Cadets 40-6 in the rematch. Michigan's team captain and quarterback Baird was injured in the game and was unable to play for three weeks.[3]

Michigan 46, Adrian 0[edit]

On October 24, 1894,[8] Michigan defeated the football team from Adrian College by a score of 46 to 0. The game was the first and last game between the Michigan and Adrian football teams.[9] It was played in Ann Arbor and consisted of halves of 25 and 15 minutes. According to an account published in the Detroit Free Press, the game was played in "a steady downpour of rain and was witnessed by a small crowd."[10] Michigan scored six touchdowns in the first half and three in the second half.[10]

Michigan 18, Case 8[edit]

Halfback John Bloomingston scored all 18 points against Case.

On October 28, 1894,[11] Michigan played the team from the Case School of Applied Science in Cleveland. The game was the first meeting between Michigan and Case. The two teams played each other 27 times between 1894 and 1923, with Michigan winning 26 of those games.[12] The inaugural 1894 game was played in Cleveland and was described as "by long odds the finest and best game of the season so far as Cleveland is concerned."[13] Michigan's win was attributed to "the superior strength and weight of their rush line," and its line play was described as "beautiful to see" and "about as fine as could be imagined."[13] Playing at right halfback, Bloomingston scored all 18 points for Michigan with three touchdowns and two goals after touchdown. Although Bloomingston did the scoring, the Detroit Free Press wrote that Ferbert, playing at left halfback, consistently "wriggled" away from the Case tacklers and covered himself in glory.[13]

Michigan's 11 starters played the entire 60-minute game without substitution. They were Hadden (left end), Villa (left tackle), Neinde (left guard), Smith (center), Henninger (right guard), Baird (right tackle), Price (right end), Greenleaf (quarterback), Bloomingston (right halfback), Ferbert (left halfback), and Dyer (fullback).[13]

Cornell 22, Michigan 0[edit]

Michigan played the first of two games against Cornell on November 3, 1894, in Ithaca, New York. Even though Michigan's team, referred to in the press as "gridiron giants," outweighed the Cornell players by an average of five pounds, the Cornell players were reported to have "greater skill and agility."[14] Michigan had never beaten Cornell prior to 1894, and the betting in advance of the game was 5 to 1 the Cornell would win and 2 to 1 that Michigan would not score.[14] Cornell won the game by a score of 22 to 0.[15] The loss to Cornell was Michigan's only loss of the 1894 season. It also marked the seventh consecutive loss to Cornell dating back to 1889.[16]

Michigan played the game without its captain and starting quarterback, Jimmy Baird, following a knee injury in the rematch with the Michigan Military Academy.[17]

Michigan 22, Kansas 12[edit]

End Henry Senter ran 30 yards for a touchdown against Kansas.

On November 10, 1894, Michigan played on the road against Kansas University. The game drew a crowd of 5,000 people to Exposition Park in Kansas City, Missouri. It was the second meeting between the two schools, Michigan having won the first meeting in 1893 by a score of 22 to 0. The Michigan team won by a score of 22 to 12. The Detroit Free Press reported:

"Despite a cold bleak day, 5,000 people witnessed the contest and pronounced it the best ever seen in Kansas City. Society was out in full force, the entire east side of the field being packed with carriages of every description."[18]

Michigan won the coin toss at the start of the game and chose to play with the wind during the first half. On the opening kickoff, Ferbert "made a pretty run of 20 yards," and Michigan drove the distance of the field for a touchdown. The biggest gains on the scoring drive were runs of 25 yards by Bloomingston and 20 yards by Dyer. Dygert scored the touchdown, and Bloomingston kicked the goal after touchdown to give Michigan a 6-0 lead.[18]

Michigan's second touchdown came on a 30-yard run by Senter, and Bloomingston again kicked the goal to give Michigan a 12-0 lead. On the next drive, Michigan scored its third touchdown on a 20-yard run by Price. The goal was missed, and Michigan led 16-0.[18]

Kansas scored a touchdown after Dyer fumbled on a punt return. Armour, the right end for Kansas, returned the ball 75 yards for the touchdown. Kansas converted its goal after touchdown. Shortly before halftime, Michigan blocked a Kansas kick and Ferbert fell on the ball one foot from Kansas' goal line. Time was called by the linesman before Michigan could run another play, and the Wolverines led 16-6 at halftime.[18]

According to the game account in the Detroit Free Press, "the Michigan team seemed to go completely to pieces" during the second half. Dyer was injured during a Kansas drive, and after he left the game, Hester, the Kansas fullback, broke through for a touchdown, reducing Michigan's lead to 16-12. Ferbert scored Michigan's final touchdown in the second half, and Bloomington kicked the goal to give Michigan a 22-12 lead.[18] The Nebraska State Journal wrote: "Michigan won the game by sheer strength. Her team is unusually heavy and her centers a stone wall."[19] After concluding the home-and-away series with Kansas in 1893 and 1894, Michigan did not play another game against Kansas for 85 years. (Michigan beat the Jayhawks in 1979 by a score of 28 to 7.)[20]

Ten of Michigan's starters played the entire game without substitution. They are Smith (center), Henninger (right guard), Reynolds (right tackle), Price (right end), Carr (left tackle), Villa (left tackle), Senter (left end), Bloomingston (right halfback), Dygert (left halfback), and Ferbert (quarterback). Dyer started the game at fullback, but was replaced due to injury by Baird. Baird was then replaced by Richards.[18]

Michigan 14, Oberlin 6[edit]

Tackle Giovannie "Count" Villa from Walla Walla, Washington was credited with "brilliant work on the offense and defense" against Oberlin.

On November 17, 1894, Michigan played Oberlin College on Regents Field in Ann Arbor. The game was played in front of 2,200 spectators,[21][22] described as "[t]he largest and most enthusiastic crowd that ever attended a game in the athletic field."[23] Michigan won by a score of 14 to 6 in a game that the Detroit Free Press described as follows:

"The game was the hardest played here this season, but was characterized by gentlemanly playing throughout. . . . Michigan played slow at first, but gradually warmed up to the work and showed its strength. Every man on the team played good ball. Villa was particularly good and did brilliant work on the offense and defense."[23]

Oberlin scored the games first points on a 60-yard touchdown run by Boothman, a sprinter who had run the 100-yard dash in 10 seconds.[21] Michigan did not score until 16 minutes into the game. Michigan's first touchdown was scored by Bloomingston on a drive that consisted of "bucking Oberlin's line" and moving the ball steadily down the field. Michigan missed the goal after touchdown and trailed 6-4 at halftime.[23]

In the second half, "Michigan had it all her own way, Oberlin fought hard, but could do nothing against the constant hammering of her line."[23] Michigan halfback Richards scored six minutes into the second half, but again missed the goal after touchdown. Michigan led 8-6. The final touchdown was scored by Villa "who broke through the line and ran forty yards."[23]

University of Chicago head coach Amos Alonzo Stagg acted as umpire in the game. The Detroit Free Press complained that Stagg's "biased decisions" slowed Michigan's progress and opined that he was "decidedly one-sided in his decisions, giving Oberlin the ball four times for holding and also 40 yards for off side."[23]

All 11 of Michigan's starters played the entire game without substitution. They were Senter (left end), Villa (left tackle), Carr (left guard), Smith (center), Henninger (right guard), Hadden (right tackle), Price (right end), Ferbert (quarterback), Richards (left halfback), Dygert (right halfback), and Bloomingston (fullback).[23]

Michigan 12, Cornell 4[edit]

Team captain James Baird returned from injury to lead Michigan against Cornell.

After losing to Cornell earlier in the season, Michigan played Cornell again on November 24, 1894, this time at the Detroit Athletic Club Field in Detroit. With team captain Baird back in the lineup at quarterback, Michigan fans anticipated a close match. In preparation for the game, The Michigan Daily developed a plan to have the Michigan fans sing appropriate songs to familiar tunes during the game, and a yell-master was appointed to lead the "noise-making ceremonies," including the "time-honored college yell and cheers and the foghorns, etc."[17]

Two-thousand students traveled from Ann Arbor to watch the game, as did "a considerable number of the faculty." The Detroit Free Press described the commotion created by the large crowd arriving by train: "Striking Woodward avenue this advance column made policemen for blocks prick up their ears for a moment by their yells and onward the legions filed . . . Every place showing a profusion of yellow chrysanthemums in a window was looted . . ."[24]

The game was started at 2:30 p.m. on a cloudy and chilly afternoon before 4,000 spectators, the largest crowd ever present at a game in Detroit.[24] Michigan scored a touchdown in the first half on a series of tackle plays in which Senter, Ferbert, Villa, Dyer and Bloomingston participated.[25] Cornell followed with its own touchdown but missed the goal after touchdown.[25] In the second half, Michigan drove the ball to Cornell's 2½ yard line, and Yont fell on the ball for a touchdown. Bloomingston kicked the goal after touchdown to make the score 12 to 4.[25]

The Detroit Free Press described the efforts of Michigan's yell-master to incite the crowd:

"Stationed at regular intervals along the line were the howling master and his worthy assistants. . . . The howling master would raise his cane and start the college yell and the hundreds nearest him would join in. . . . At first these yells could be heard nearly to Grand Circus park, but in the last ten minutes of play the real enjoyment was in watching the facial movements of the howlers. Their voices had been wafted away by the gentle breezes and all that was left was a rasping, guttural sound accompanied by an expression of determination but nothing vocal to carry it out."[24]

Michigan did not allow Cornell to score in the second half and won the game 12 to 4.[26] One newspaper described the ferocity of the game as follows:

"The fiercest struggle at football that ever took place on Michigan soil was the game between Michigan and Cornell universities. It was pluck against pluck, strategy against strategy, strength against strength, and Michigan developed the most strategy, had the most strength, but in pluck honors were even."[27]

When the game ended, "[t]he crowd went wild, and hats, canes and everything available flew into the air. Over the ropes went the crowd and the fortunate players were picked up and carried from the field."[24] A group of 500 students, stretching a block in length, towed a large green bus carrying the team from the athletic grounds. The procession, accompanied by a large crowd, moved loudly up Woodward Avenue with the team in tow until the bus reached Russell House where the team spent the night. The team was entertained by a vaudeville show while seated in the boxes at the Whitney Opera House, which was decorated with chrysanthemums and colored ribbons. According to an account in the Detroit Free Press, the city was given over to "the U. of M. boys" for the night: "Wherever one turned he was confronted with the din and tumult; the ear-splitting yells from throats with vocal chords of extraordinary vibratory possibilities."[24] The police "showed no disposition to exercise any authority to quell this miniature riot. Probably they knew that it would be like battling with the raging elements, and wisely resorted to extreme discretion."[24] Many of the city's residents were reportedly entertained by the spectacle: "Heretofore some idea of college boys had only been gleaned from a minstrel performance ... But last night the city was deluged with college enthusiasm, and the vitality of the boys was something amazing and awe-inspiring. There seemed to be no limit to their energy."[24]

All but one of Michigan's starters played the entire game. The starting lineup for Michigan was: Senter (left end), Villa (left tackle), Carr (left guard), Smith (center), Henninger (right guard), Hadden (right tackle), Price (right end), Baird (quarterback), Ferbert (left halfback), Bloomingston (right halfback), and Dyer (fullback). The sole Michigan substitution was Yont for Villa after Villa wrenched his leg and had to leave the field.[24][26]

Historical significance of the Cornell game[edit]

In a speech after the Cornell game, University President James B. Angell said the benefit of the victory was in the cultivation of a "broad, generous university spirit" that "makes us feel here one interest and common joy."

The victory over Cornell was the first by a Michigan football team against one of the elite Eastern football team, and "the Michigan men went wild" as blue and yellow were "all the colors that could be seen."[27] One newspaper wrote that the victory placed Michigan among the top programs in football: "The victory places Michigan in the position of worthy foeman of Yale, Harvard, Princeton or Pennsylvania."[27] The Detroit Free Press filled its front page with a lengthy account of the game under the headline, "GLORIOUS!", and proclaimed the start of "halcyon days at the university" and opined that "the day of logy teams, slow signalling and dumb playing at the university are but pages in history now."[24] The Free Press predicted that the victory would mark a turning point in the popularity of football in the West, such that "it will become the only acknowledged game of the fall, and its devotees will outnumber those of any other game."[24] The University of Michigan yearbook, The Palladium, wrote: "The enthusiasm of that day at Detroit transformed our foot ball team from the practically 'backwoods' organization that they were to skillful, scientific players of the great American game of foot ball. Let the good work go on."[28]

On the Monday evening following the game, 3,000 students gathered for a mass meeting in University Hall to celebrate the victory.[29] Speeches were delivered University President James Burrill Angell, Coach McCauley, team captain Jimmy Baird, and team manager Charles Baird. President Angell told the crowd, "I have been asked often today, 'What will be the effect of the game?' I am neither a prophet or the son of a prophet, but there is one thing of great value that I believe will result. . . . I think the benefit of victory lies in the cultivation of this broad, generous university spirit that pervades all departments and makes us feel here one interest and common joy."[30] After the mass meeting, the students gathered until midnight around a large bonfire on the campus.[29]

In December 1894, The Michigan Alumnus credited the victory over Cornell with the formation of permanent alumni associations in various cities:

"Michigan alumni all over the country are rejoicing because of our great victory over Cornell on the foot-ball field. It presages better days for athletics at the University, for it means that hereafter we may look for greater encouragement from the authorities and from the student body than ever before this. It is proving a new and powerful bond of union and sympathy among our alumni. Brought together, as in Buffalo, to celebrate this foot-ball victory, our graduates have felt the old fire of enthusiasm for their grand old University, and have formed permanent alumni associations, the value and importance of which is bound to be great."[31]

Michigan 6, Chicago 4[edit]

Halfback Gustave Ferbert scored Michigan's only touchdown against Chicago.

Michigan closed its 1894 season with a trip to Chicago to face Amos Alonzo Stagg's Chicago Maroons. Two hours before kickoff a "driving sleet storm" hit the city, and when the players lined up "the grounds were better fitted for skating rink purposes rather than a gridiron."[32] Despite the inclement weather, a large crowd turned out to watch the game. According to a newspaper account, "the grand stand and outfield were packed with yelling collegians, and the boxes and carriage rooms were well filled with society people."[32] An account published in the Detroit Free Press described the atmosphere surrounding the game:

"Notwithstanding the threatening weather, fully 6,000 of Chicago's best and fairest witnessed the hardest fought battle ever seen in Chicago. . . . Michigan was not entirely over her hard-fought game in Detroit last Saturday and her men did not play with the snap and dash she displayed against Cornell. The east and south sides of the field were lined with tally-hos, landaus, etc. Everyone wore the colors of one of the colleges. The yellow and blue of Michigan was as prominently displayed as was the maroon of Chicago. Everyone was out to yell for his respective team and from the noise it seemed as if pandemonium had been turned loose."[33]

Some accounts indicate that Michigan had been expected to "bury the Chicagos under a big score,"[34] while others indicated that "the betting was even on the two teams."[33] Chicago scored the game's first touchdown on an end run by Nichols less than ten minutes into the game. However, Chicago missed the try for goal after touchdown. The first half ended with the score 4 to 0 in favor of Chicago.

Michigan won the game on a touchdown drive late in the second half that featured runs of 20 yards by Dyer and 10 yards by Senter. Ferbert scored the touchdown on a five yard run around the end. Bloomingston kicked the goal after touchdown. Michigan won the game by a final score of 6 to 4.[34] Near the end of the game, Bloomingston narrowly missed a field goal attempt from the 40-yard line, with the ball passing just under the cross bar.[33]

One newspaper account of the game stated that Chicago had outplayed Michigan for 67 minutes, "but in three minutes victory was wrested from Capt. Stagg's men and perched on the yellow and blue banner of the college from across the lake."[35] A controversy arose after the game as Michigan supporters charged that "Stagg had secured [Michigan]'s signals and made use of the knowledge, hoping to win by any means, however questionable."[36] In another account, the Detroit Free Press complained of biased officiating by the umpire, Phil Allen, who was a cousin of Chicago's captain.[37]

The game was Michigan's second consecutive Thanksgiving Day game against Chicago. The first game, in 1893, drew a crowd of 2,000, and in 1894, the attendance more than doubled. The large attendance solidified Chicago's status as Michigan's "natural rival," and The Michigan Alumnus reported that "all parties hope to make this game the leading athletic event of the west, but above all to have the contest manly and free from criticism."[38]

Michigan's starting lineup in the game was Senter (left end), Villa (left tackle), Carr (left guard), Smith (center), Henninger (right guard), Hadden (right tackle), Price (right end), Baird (quarterback), Ferbert (left halfback), Dyer (right halfback), and Bloomingston (fullback). The sole substitutions for Michigan were Yont for Villa and Reynolds for price.[33] Price and Gale of Chicago were ejected from the game for "slugging."[34]

Season overview and finances[edit]

After totaling seven wins in 1892 and again in 1893, Michigan's nine wins in 1894 marked the highest win total in Michigan football history to that time. In an article on Inter-Collegiate Athletics in the Middle West, Reuben M. Strong of Oberlin College wrote, "Michigan University, without doubt, deserves the honors of first place in foot-ball for '94. Wisconsin University would make a close second. Unfortunately the two did not meet, as Michigan is inclined to give more attention to the Eastern colleges of late."[39]

In April 1895, the report by the treasurer of the University of Michigan Athletic Association showed a cash balance of $1,013.17. Receipts for the year totaled $5,613.17, with game receipts comprising $4,100. Expenditures included $3,350 for "trips and foot-ball expenses," $560 for a coach, $440 for the training table, and $150 for printing.[40]

Players[edit]

Guard Bert Carr from Cedar Spring, Michigan
End H. G. Hadden became the head football coach at Notre Dame in 1895.
Halfback George Dygert played five years of football at Michigan from 1890 to 1894.

Varsity[edit]

Reserves[edit]

  • Archie Ernest Bartlett,[44] Cardington, Ohio - end
  • Phillip D. Bourland,[45] Peoria, Illinois
  • Edwin Denby, Detroit, Michigan
  • Thaddeus Loomis Farnham, Rosford, Ohio
  • Neil Gates, Ann Arbor, Michigan
  • Willard W. Griffin, Wenona
  • Evans Holbrook, Onawa, Iowa
  • Loomis Hutchinson, Ceresco, Michigan
  • George A. Marston, Bay City, Michigan[46]
  • Elbert Nicholson, Kalamazoo, Michigan
  • James M. Raikes, Burlington, Iowa
  • Francis Joseph Welsh, Ann Arbor, Michigan - end

Coaching and training staff[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ There is a discrepancy in accounts as to the number of points scored by the 1894 Michigan team. The Bentley Historical Library credits Michigan with 244 points scored, including 22 points scored against Kansas. The College Football Data Warehouse credits Michigan with 240 points and 18 points against Kansas. Contemporaneous accounts of the game from 1894 in the Detroit Free Press and The Michigan Alumnus indicate that Michigan scored 22 points against Kansas.
  2. ^ "University of Michigan Football Coaches: William L. McCauley". University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library. 
  3. ^ a b c The Michigan Alumnus, Vol. 1, November 1894, "The Football Situation," by George Dygert, p. 13.
  4. ^ The Inlander, Vol. 5, October 1894, p. 39.
  5. ^ "Michigan vs Albion (MI)". College Football Data Warehouse. 
  6. ^ "Michigan vs Olivet (MI)". College Football Data Warehouse. 
  7. ^ a b c "Michigan Played a Strong Game". Detroit Free Press. October 18, 1894. p. 2. 
  8. ^ There is a discrepancy as to the date on which the Adrian game was played. The Bentley Historical Library web site indicates the game was played on October 24, 1894. The game account published in the Detroit Free Press on October 24, 1894, indicates the game was played on October 23, 1894.
  9. ^ "Michigan vs Adrian (MI)". College Football Data Warehouse. 
  10. ^ a b "Adrian Wasn't in it With the U. of M.". Detroit Free Press. October 24, 1894. p. 2. 
  11. ^ There is a discrepancy as to the date on which the game was played. The Bentley Historical Library web site indicates the game was played on October 28, 1894. The game account published in the Detroit Free Press on October 28, 1894, indicates the game was played on October 27, 1894.
  12. ^ "Michigan vs Case Institute of Technology (OH)". College Football Data Warehouse. 
  13. ^ a b c d "Ann Arbor Wins a Well-Played Game". Detroit Free Press. October 28, 1894. p. 6. 
  14. ^ a b "Michigan-Cornell Game". Waterloo Daily Courier. 1894-11-05. 
  15. ^ "MICHIGAN DEFEATED: Cornell Won With Several Substitutes in the Field; A GOOD GAME NEVERTHELESS; Weak Point for the Cornell Team Was in the Line – Coach Newell's Departure". Syracuse Standard. November 4, 1894. 
  16. ^ "Michigan vs Cornell (NY)". College Football Data Warehouse. 
  17. ^ a b "Athletics at U. of M.: Football the Prevailing Topic of Conversation". Detroit Free Press. November 18, 1894. p. 4. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f "Michigan Beat the Kansas Team". Detroit Free Press. November 11, 1894. p. 6. 
  19. ^ "Brokeup in a Row". Nebraska State Journal. 1894-11-11. 
  20. ^ "Michigan vs Kansas". College Football Data Warehouse. 
  21. ^ a b The Michigan Alumnus, Vol. 1, December 1894, "Three Football Victories," p. 46.
  22. ^ Accounts differ as to the size of the crowd. The Michigan Alumnus reported in December 1894 that the game was played in front of 2,200 spectators. The Detroit Free Press reported on November 18, 1894 that the attendance was 1,200.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g "Michigan and Oberlin Played Well". Detroit Free Press. November 18, 1894. p. 7. 
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "GLORIOUS! Michigan Victorious on the Gridiron Field; Defeating Cornell by Honest and Hard Playing". Detroit Free Press. November 25, 1894. p. 1. 
  25. ^ a b c "The Michiganders Won: A Hotly-Contested Game of Football from Cornell—Score 12 to 4". The Daily Republican (Decatur, Il). 1894-11-26. 
  26. ^ a b "Michigan-Cornell Game". Logansport Journal. 1894-11-25. 
  27. ^ a b c "Joy in Michigan University". Logansport Daily Pharos. 1894-11-26. 
  28. ^ The Palladium, Vol. 37 (pages unnumbered).
  29. ^ a b The Inlander, Vol. 5, December 1894, "Of Record," p. 127.
  30. ^ The Michigan Alumnus, Vol. 1, "At the University," December 1894, p. 53.
  31. ^ The Michigan Alumnus, Vol. 1, December 1894, p. 54.
  32. ^ a b "Michigan-Chicago". Galveston Daily News. 1894-11-30. 
  33. ^ a b c d "Victory on Victory: Michigan's Eleven Won From Chicago Yesterday; It Was a Fast and Furious Game of Football". Detroit Free Press. November 30, 1894. p. 1. 
  34. ^ a b c "Ann Arbor, 6; Chicago, 4". Salt Lake Tribune. 1894-11-30. 
  35. ^ "Foot Ball Fights Barred By Police". The Daily Gazette (Janesvile, WI). 1893-11-30. 
  36. ^ The Michigan Alumnus, Vol. 1, December 1894, "Three Football Victories," p. 47.
  37. ^ "U. of M.'s Big Victory: Something About the Thanksgiving Game at Chicago: It Was an Uphill Fight from Start to Finish; The Boys Had to Play Against the Umpire; Last Part of the Game Was the Best Ever Seen in the West". Detroit Free Press. December 2, 1894. p. 7. 
  38. ^ The Michigan Alumnus, Vol. 1, "The Chicago Alumni Association of the University of Michigan," p. 58.
  39. ^ The Michigan Alumnus, Vol. 1, "Book and Magazine Notices," December 1894, p. 69.
  40. ^ The Michigan Alumnus, Vol. 1, April 1895, "At the University," p. 105.
  41. ^ Daniel Benjamin Ninde was born in Fort Wayne, Indiana, July 28, 1870. He graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1891 and entered the University of Michigan, graduating in 1895. He also attended Harvard. He became a lawyer and served as prosecutor of Allen County, Indiana, 1904-08. He married Margaret Coe in February 1899, and they had two children.
  42. ^ Price was the son of Brig. Gen. Butler D. Pierce. He was born at Fort Laramie, Wyoming. After graduating from Michigha, he practiced law in Milwaukee. He also worked for Johns-Manville corporation in New York for several years. He died on January 9, 1934 at age 60. His body was found under the steps to the Lincoln Memorial Bridge in Milwaukee with a bottle, smelling of poison 10 feet from his body.
  43. ^ Warren Scott Rundell was born in approximately 1869 in Michigan. In 1907, he became the city attorney for Flint, Michigan. He was married to Dr. Annie Margaret Stevens Rundell, the physician for the girls in the State School for the Deaf.
  44. ^ Archie Ernest Bartlett was a teacher at Detroit Central High School and the author of "Dramas of Camp and Cloister" published in 1907.
  45. ^ Philip Daggett Bourland, born Peoria, Illinois, in 1873. He enrolled at the University of Michigan and graduated in 1895 as a professional analytical chemist. he then received his medical degree from Michigan in 1899. He became physician in Houghton County, Michigan. He was also Surgeon to the Calumet and Hecla Company. He married Jessica McIntyre in 1901.
  46. ^ George A. Marston, born January 10, 1873, became one of the leading lawyers in Michigan. See History of Michigan, Volume 2 By Charles Moore, p. 799.

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