From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the year 1895. For the 2008 film, see 1895 (film).
|Centuries:||18th century – 19th century – 20th century|
|Decades:||1860s 1870s 1880s – 1890s – 1900s 1910s 1920s|
|Years:||1892 1893 1894 – 1895 – 1896 1897 1898|
|1895 in topic:|
|Archaeology – Architecture – Art – Literature – Music|
|Australia – Brazil - Canada – France – Germany – Mexico – Philippines – South Africa – US – UK|
|Rail Transport – Science – Sports|
|Lists of leaders|
|Colonial Governors – State leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2648|
|British Regnal year||58 Vict. 1 – 59 Vict. 1|
|Chinese calendar||甲午年 (Wood Horse)
4591 or 4531
— to —
乙未年 (Wood Goat)
4592 or 4532
|- Vikram Samvat||1951–1952|
|- Shaka Samvat||1817–1818|
|- Kali Yuga||4996–4997|
|Japanese calendar||Meiji 28
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 12 days|
|Minguo calendar||17 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2438|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1895.|
- January 5 – Dreyfus affair: French officer Alfred Dreyfus is stripped of his army rank and sentenced to life imprisonment on Devil's Island.
- January 17 – Félix Faure is elected President of French Republic after the resignation of Jean Casimir-Perier.
- January 21 – The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty is founded in England by Octavia Hill, Robert Hunter and Canon Hardwicke Rawnsley.
- February 9 – Mintonette, later known as volleyball, is created by William G. Morgan at Holyoke, Massachusetts.
- February 11 – The lowest ever UK temperature of −27.2 °C (−17.0 °F) is recorded at Braemar in Aberdeenshire. This record is equalled in 1982 and again in 1995.
- February 14 – Oscar Wilde's last play The Importance of Being Earnest is first shown at St. James' Theatre in London.
- February 20 – Venezuela Crisis of 1895: President Grover Cleveland signs into law a bill resulting from the proposition of House Resolution 252 by William Lindsay Scruggs and Congressman Leonidas Livingston to the third session of the 53rd Congress of the United States of America. The bill recommends Venezuela and Great Britain settle their dispute by arbitration.
- March 1 – William L. Wilson is appointed United States Postmaster General.
- March 3 – In Munich, bicyclists have to pass a test and display license plates.
- March 4 – Japanese troops capture Liaoyang and land in Taiwan.
- March 15 – in County Tipperary, Ireland, Bridget Cleary is killed by her husband, who believes her to be a fairy changeling.
- March 30 – Rudolf Diesel patents the Diesel engine in Germany.
- April 6 – Oscar Wilde is arrested after losing a libel case against the Marquess of Queensberry.
- April 14 – A major earthquake severely damages Ljubljana, the capital of Carniola.
- April 16 – The town of Sturgeon Falls, Ontario, is incorporated.
- April 17 – The Treaty of Shimonoseki is signed between China and Japan. This marks the end of the First Sino-Japanese War, and the defeated Qing Empire is forced to renounce its claims on Korea and to concede the southern portion of Fengtien province, Taiwan, and the Pescadores Islands to Japan.
- April 22 – Gongche Shangshu movement: 603 candidates sign a 10,000-word petition against the Treaty of Shimonoseki.
- May 1 – Dundela Football, Sports & Association Club were formed
- May 2 – Gongche Shangshu movement: Thousands of Beijing scholars and citizens protest against the Treaty of Shimonoseki.
- May 24 – Anti-Japanese officials led by Tang Ching-sung in Taiwan declare independence from the Qing dynasty, forming the short-lived Republic of Formosa.
- May 25 – Oscar Wilde is convicted of "sodomy and gross indecency" and is sentenced to serve 2 years in Reading Prison, where he writes "The Ballad of Reading Gaol".
- May 27 – In re Debs: The Supreme Court of the United States decides that the federal government has the right to regulate interstate commerce, legalizing the military suppression of the Pullman Strike.
- June 20 – The Kiel Canal, connecting the North Sea to the Baltic across the base of the Jutland peninsula in Germany, is officially opened.
- June 28
- Night of July 10–July 11 – The Doukhobors' pacifist protests culminate in the "Burning of the ass" in their villages in the South Caucasus.
- July 13 – Mexican musician and scientist Julian Carrillo discovers the SONIDO 13 (13th Sound) in Mexico City.
- July 15 – Archie MacLaren scores an English County Championship cricket record innings of 424 for Lancashire against Somerset at Taunton.
- July 31 – The Basque Nationalist Party (Euzko Alderdi Jeltzalea-Partido Nacionalista Vasco) was founded by Basque nationalist leader Sabino Arana.
- August 19 – American frontier murderer and outlaw John Wesley Hardin is killed by an off-duty policeman in a saloon in El Paso, Texas.
- August 29
- September 3 – The first professional American football game is played, in Latrobe, Pennsylvania, between the Latrobe YMCA and the Jeannette Athletic Club (Latrobe wins 12–0).
- September 7 – The first game of what will become known as rugby league football is played in England, starting the 1895–96 Northern Rugby Football Union season.
- September 18
- Booker T. Washington delivers the Atlanta compromise speech.
- Tomoji Tanabe is born in Miyakonojō, Miyazaki, Japan. He will become the last living man born in 1895, dying on June 19, 2009, at the age of 113.
- Daniel David Palmer performed the first Chiropractic Adjustment. Palmer's first patient was Harvey Lillard whose complaint was partial deafness after an injury.
- October – Rudyard Kipling publishes the story "Mowgli Leaves the Jungle Forever" in The Cosmopolitan illustrated magazine (price 10 cents).
- October 1 – French troops capture Antananarivo in Madagascar.
- October 8 – The Eulmi Incident: Empress Myeongseong of Korea, is killed at her private residence within Gyeongbokgung Palace by Japanese agents.
- October 22 – A train wreck occurs at Gare Montparnasse in Paris.
- October 23 – The city of Tainan, last stronghold of the Republic of Formosa, capitulates to the forces of the Empire of Japan, ending the short-lived republic and beginning the era of Japanese rule.
- October 31 – A major earthquake occurs in the New Madrid Seismic Zone of the midwestern United States, the last to date.
- November 5 – George B. Selden is granted the first U.S. patent for an automobile.
- November 8 – Wilhelm Röntgen discovers a type of radiation later known as X-rays.
- November 25
- Oscar Hammerstein opens the Olympia Theatre, the first theatre to be built in New York City's Times Square district.
- Chicago Times-Herald race: The first American automobile race in history is sponsored by the Chicago Times-Herald. Press coverage first arouses significant American interest in the automobile.
- November 27 – At the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris, Alfred Nobel signs his last will and testament, setting aside his estate to establish the Nobel Prize after his death.
- December –
- December 7 – A corps of 2,350 Italian troops, mostly Askari, are crushed by 30,000 Abyssian troops at Amba Alagi.
- December 24 – Christmas Eve:
- Kingstown Lifeboat Disaster: 15 crew are lost when their lifeboat capsizes while trying to rescue the crew of the SS Palme off Kingstown (modern Dún Laoghaire) near Dublin, Ireland.
- George Washington Vanderbilt II officially opens his "Biltmore House" estate, inviting his family to celebrate his new home in Asheville, North Carolina.
- December 28 – Auguste and Louis Lumière display their first moving picture film in Paris.
- The London School of Economics and Political Science is founded in London, England.
- Konstantin Tsiolkovsky proposes a space elevator.
- Grace Chisholm Young becomes the first woman awarded a doctorate at a German university.
- W. E. B. Du Bois becomes the first African American to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard University.
- The Duck Reach Power Station opens in Tasmania.
- The first Boxer (dog) show is held at Munich, Germany.
- A huge crowd at the Welsh Grand National at Ely Racecourse, Cardiff, almost overwhelms police trying to keep out gatecrashers.
- The gold reserve of the U.S. Treasury is saved when J. P. Morgan and the Rothschilds loan $65 million worth of gold to the United States government.
- The Biltmore Estate near Asheville, North Carolina is completed.
- The Swarovski Company opens.
- German trade unions have c. 270,000 members.
- The huge indemnity exacted from China is used to establish the Yawata Iron and Steel Works.
- The name 'HP Sauce' is first registered in the United Kingdom.
- Foundation of the following association football clubs in Ireland:
- January 1
- January 4 – Leroy Grumman, American aeronautical engineer, test pilot, and industrialist. (d. 1982)
- January 15
- January 21 – Cristóbal Balenciaga, Spanish-French couturier (d. 1972)
- January 23 – Raymond Griffith, American actor (d. 1957)
- January 24 – Eugen Roth, German writer (d. 1976)
- January 30 – Wilhelm Gustloff, German-born Swiss Nazi party leader (d. 1936)
- February 2 – George Halas, American football player, coach, and co-founder of the National Football League (d. 1983)
- February 6 – Babe Ruth, American baseball player (d. 1948)
- February 10 – John Black, English chairman of Standard-Triumph (d. 1965)
- February 14 – Max Horkheimer, German philosopher and sociologist (d. 1973)
- February 15 – Earl Thomson, Canadian athlete (d. 1971)
- February 18 (O.S. 6 February) – Semyon Timoshenko, Soviet general, Marshal of the Soviet Union (d. 1970)
- February 19 – Diego Mazquiarán, Spanish matador (d. 1940)
- February 21 – Henrik Dam, Danish biochemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1976)
- February 25 – Lew Andreas, American basketball coach (d. 1984)
- February 27 – Edward Brophy, American character actor (d. 1960)
- February 28
- March 3
- March 4
- March 12 – William C. Lee, U.S. general (d. 1948)
- March 20 – Robert Benoist, French race car driver and war hero (d. 1944)
- March 23 – Encarnacion Alzona, Filipino historian (d. 2001)
- March 28 – Spencer W. Kimball, president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (d. 1985)
- March 29 – Ernst Jünger, German author (d. 1998)
- April 1 – Alberta Hunter, American singer (d. 1984)
- April 3 – Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco, Italian composer (d. 1968)
- April 9 – Mance Lipscomb, American singer (d. 1976)
- April 13 – Olga Rudge, American violinist (d. 1996)
- April 15
- April 20 – Emile Christian, American musician (d. 1973)
- April 29 – Malcolm Sargent, English conductor (d. 1967)
- May 6 – Rudolph Valentino, Italian actor (d. 1926)
- May 8 – Fulton J. Sheen, American Catholic archbishop and television personality (d. 1979)
- May 10 – Kama Chinen, Japanese woman supercentenarian and oldest person in the world (d. 2010)
- May 17
- May 25 – Dorothea Lange, American documentary photographer and photojournalist (d. 1965)
- June 10 – Hattie McDaniel, Actress, The first African-American woman to win an Academy Award in 1939 (d. 1952)
- June 12 – Wilfrid Kent Hughes, Australian Olympian and politician (d. 1970)
- June 24 – Jack Dempsey, American heavyweight boxer (d. 1983)
- July 2 – Pavel Osipovich Sukhoi, Russian aircraft engineer (d. 1975)
- July 8 – Igor Tamm, Russian physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1971)
- July 10 – Carl Orff, German composer (d. 1982)
- July 12
- July 14 – F. R. Leavis, British literary critic (d. 1978)
- July 19 – Xu Beihong, Chinese painter (d. 1953)
- July 22 – León de Greiff, Colombian poet (d. 1976)
- July 24 – Robert Graves, English writer (d. 1985)
- July 25 – Yvonne Printemps, French singer and actress (d. 1977)
- July 26 – Gracie Allen, American actress and comedian (d. 1964)
- August 3 – Neva Morris, American supercentenarian (d. 2010)
- August 6 – Ernesto Lecuona, A Cuban pianist and composer (d. 1963)
- August 8 – Jean Navarre, French World War I fighter ace (d. 1919)
- August 12 – Lynde D. McCormick, American admiral (d. 1956)
- August 16
- August 18 – Sibyl Morrison, Australian barrister (d. 1961)
- August 24 – Tuanku Abdul Rahman, King of Malaysia (d. 1960)
- September 1
- September 7 – Sir Brian Horrocks, British general (d. 1985)
- September 11 – Vinoba Bhave, Indian religious leader (d. 1982)
- September 13 – Ruth McDevitt, American actress (d. 1976)
- September 18 – Tomoji Tanabe, Japanese supercentenarian who would become the last living man born in 1895 (d. 2009)
- September 21 – Juan de la Cierva, Spanish civil engineer, aviator, and aeronautical engineer. and inventor of the autogyro (d. 1936)
- September 24 – André Frédéric Cournand, French-born physician, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1988)
- September 29 – Joseph Banks Rhine, American parapsychologist (d. 1980)
- October 3
- October 4 – Buster Keaton, American actor and film director (d. 1966)
- October 6 – Caroline Gordon, American writer and critic (d. 1981)
- October 8
- October 10 – Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen, German field marshal (d. 1945)
- October 13
- October 14 – Silas Simmons, Pre-Negro League Baseball player, longest-lived professional baseball player (d. 2006)
- October 19 – Lewis Mumford, American historian (d. 1990)
- October 21 – Edna Purviance, American actress (d. 1958)
- October 22 – Rolf Nevanlinna, Finnish mathematician (d. 1980)
- October 25 – Levi Eshkol, Israeli Prime Minister (d. 1969)
- October 30
- October 31 – Basil Liddell Hart, British military historian (d. 1970)
- November 5 – Walter Gieseking, German pianist (d. 1956)
- November 10 – John Knudsen Northrop, American airplane manufacturer (d. 1981)
- November 14
- November 15
- November 16 – Paul Hindemith, German composer (d. 1963)
- November 17 – Mikhail Bakhtin, Russian philosopher and literary scholar (d. 1975)
- November 25
- November 29 – Busby Berkeley, American film director and choreographer (d. 1976)
- December 2 – Harriet Cohen, English pianist (d. 1967)
- December 14
- December 24, Marguerite Williams, American geologist (d. ca 1999)
- December 28 – Carol Ryrie Brink, American author (d. 1981)
- January 9 – Aaron Lufkin Dennison, American watchmaker (b. 1812)
- January 10 – Benjamin Godard, French composer (b. 1849)
- January 24 – Lord Randolph Churchill, British statesman (b. 1849)
- February 2 – Archduke Albrecht, Duke of Teschen, Austrian general (b. 1817)
- February 20 – Frederick Douglass, American ex-slave and author (b. 1818)
- February 25 – Henry Bruce, 1st Baron Aberdare, politician (b. 1815)
- February 26 – Salvador de Itúrbide y de Marzán, Prince of Mexico (b. 1849)
- March 2 – Berthe Morisot, French painter (b. 1841)
- March 10 – Charles Frederick Worth, English-born couturier (b. 1826)
- April 4 – Nikolai Baranov, Russian politician (b. 1843)
- May 19 – José Martí, Cuban independence leader (b. 1853)
- May 21 – Franz von Suppé, Austrian composer (b. 1819)
- May 26 – Ahmed Cevdet Pasha, Ottoman statesman (b. 1822)
- May 28 – Walter Q. Gresham, American politician (b. 1832)
- June 6 – Gustaf Nordenskiöld, Swedish explorer (b. 1868)
- June 27 – Sophie Adlersparre, Swedish feminist (b. 1823)
- June 29
- July 28 – Edward Beecher, American theologian (b. 1803)
- August 4 – Louis-Antoine Dessaulles, Quebec journalist and politician (b. 1818)
- August 5 – Friedrich Engels, German communist philosopher (b. 1820)
- August 22 – Luzon B. Morris, American politician (b. 1827)
- September 28 – Louis Pasteur, French microbiologist and chemist (b. 1822)
- October 8 – Empress Myeongseong (Queen Min), last Korean empress (b. 1851), assassinated
- October 25 – Charles Hallé, German-born pianist and conductor (b. 1819)
- November 5 – Prince Kitashirakawa Yoshihisa of Japan (b. 1847)
- November 23 – Mauritz de Haas, Dutch-American marine painter (b. 1832)
- November 27 – Alexandre Dumas, fils, French author and playwright (b. 1824)
- December 13 – Ányos Jedlik, Hungarian physicist, inventor of the Dynamo (b. 1800)
- Derfler, Leslie (2002). The Dreyfus Affair. p. 2.
- Weale, Bertram Lenox Putnam (1905). The Re-shaping of the Far East. pp. 431–437.
- therfl.co.uk. "Key Dates". History & Heritage. Rugby Football League. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- Gottheimer, Josh; Bill Clinton, and Mary Frances Berry (2004). Ripples of Hope: Great American Civil Rights Speeches. p. 128.
- Berger, Michael L. The automobile in American history and culture: a reference guide. p. 278.