1896 in literature
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In poetry: 1893 1894 1895 -1896- 1897 1898 1899
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The year 1896 in literature involved some significant literary events and new books.
- February 11 - Oscar Wilde's play Salome (written in 1891) is premièred (while Wilde is in prison), in French by Lugné-Poe's Théâtre de l'Œuvre company in Paris, perhaps at the Comédie-Parisienne.
- March 3 - Publication begins of the world's first magazine with an orientation to male homosexuality, Der Eigene, by Adolf Brand in Berlin.
- July 7 - Charles Thomas Wooldridge is hanged at Reading Gaol in England for uxoricide, inspiring fellow-prisoner C.3.3. Oscar Wilde's The Ballad of Reading Gaol (1897).
- October 10 - The New York Times publishes its first book review section, which evolves to become The New York Times Book Review.
- October 17 - Anton Chekhov's play The Seagull is unsuccessfully premièred at the Alexandrinsky Theatre in Saint Petersburg (Russia).
- December 10 - Alfred Jarry's play Ubu Roi (first published this Spring in Le Livre d'art) is premièred by the Théâtre de l'Œuvre in Paris. The opening word, "Merdre!", triggers disturbances and the play is not performed again in the author's lifetime.
- Stephanus Jacobus du Toit's Die Koningin van Skeba, the first Afrikaans language novel, begins serialization in Ons Klyntji.
- Frank Munsey's The Argosy publishes its first all adult fiction issue, pioneering the pulp magazine genre.
- Final volume of Theodore Roosevelt's The Winning of the West.
- Bernard Grenfell and Arthur Hunt of Queen's College, Oxford, begin excavation at Oxyrhynchus in Egypt, discovering the Oxyrhynchus Papyri.
- English twins Agnes S. Lewis and Margaret D. Gibson bring the treasures of the Cairo Geniza to the attention of Western scholars; notably the first Hebrew language text of the book of Ecclesiastes known in modern times.
- The Publishers Association is established in the United Kingdom as a trade association.
- The Cheltenham typeface is designed by architect Bertram Goodhue and Ingalls Kimball, director of the Cheltenham Press in New York; and Akzidenz-Grotesk by the Berthold Type Foundry in Berlin.
- Herman Bang - Ludvigsbakke
- Max Beerbohm - The Works of Max Beerbohm
- R. D. Blackmore - Tales from the Telling House
- René Boylesve - Le Médecin des dames de néans
- Hall Caine - Jan the Icelander or Home, Sweet Home, A Lecture Story
- Joseph Conrad - An Outcast of the Islands
- Marie Corelli
- Machado de Assis - Várias histórias (short story collection)
- Edouard Estaunie - L' empreinte
- Antonio Fogazzaro - The Patriot
- Theodor Fontane - Effi Briest (in book form)
- Harold Frederic - The Damnation of Theron Ware
- Mary E. Wilkins Freeman - Madelon
- Jules Girardin - Les aventures de M. Colin-Tampon
- Higuchi Ichiyō - Takekurabe
- W. W. Jacobs - Many Cargoes (short story collection)
- Sarah Orne Jewett - The Country of the Pointed Firs
- "The Lord Commissioner" (John McCoy) - A Prophetic Romance: Mars to Earth
- Pierre Louÿs - Aphrodite: mœurs antiques
- William Morris - The Well at the World's End
- Arthur Morrison - A Child of the Jago
- Bolesław Prus - Pharaoh (Faraon; serialization concludes)
- Antala Staška - Blouznivci našich hor
- Robert Louis Stevenson (posthumous) - Weir of Hermiston (unfinished)
- Mark Twain - Tom Sawyer, Detective
- Paul Valéry - La Soirée avec M. Teste
- Jules Verne
- Mary Augusta Ward - Sir George Tressady
- H. G. Wells - The Island of Doctor Moreau
- Owen Wister - Red Men and White
- Émile Zola - Rome
- George Ade - Artie
- Anton Chekhov - The Seagull
- Henrik Ibsen - John Gabriel Borkman
- Alfred Jarry - Ubu Roi
- Theodor Herzl - Der Judenstaat
- Charles Monroe Sheldon - In His Steps: 'What Would Jesus Do?'
- Andrew Dickson White - A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom
- January 7 – Arnold Ridley, English dramatist and actor (died 1984)
- January 14 – John Dos Passos, American novelist (died 1970)
- February 12 – Dorothy Frooks, American author and publisher (died 1997)
- February 18 – André Breton, French Surrealist poet and author (died 1966)
- March 10 – Nancy Cunard, English patron of the arts (died 1965)
- April 16 – Tristan Tzara, Romanian-French poet and essayist (died 1963)
- April 23 – Margaret Kennedy, English novelist and playwright (died 1967)
- May 3 – Dodie Smith, English novelist and dramatist (died 1990)
- June 6 – R. C. Sherriff, English dramatist (died 1975)
- July 19 – A. J. Cronin, Scottish novelist (died 1981)
- July 25 – Josephine Tey, Scottish crime writer (died 1952)
- August 28 – Liam O'Flaherty, Irish novelist and short-story writer (died 1984)
- September 4 – Antonin Artaud, French theatre director (died 1948)
- September 5 – Heimito von Doderer, Austrian author (died 1966)
- September 22 – Uri Zvi Grinberg, Austro-Hungarian-born Israeli poet writing in Yiddish and Hebrew (died 1981)
- September 24 – F. Scott Fitzgerald, American writer (died 1940)
- October 11 – Roman Jakobson, Russian linguistic theorist (died 1982)
- October 30 – Ruth Gordon, American actress and screenwriter (Adam's Rib) (died 1985)
- Date unknown – Edith Ditmas, English archivist, historian and writer (died 1986)
- January 8 - Paul Verlaine, French poet, 51
- January 17 - Lady Llanover, patron of the arts in Wales, 93
- February 26 - Arsène Houssaye, French novelist, poet and man of letters, 80
- March 22 - Ludwig Laistner, German novelist, mythologist, and literary historian, 50
- May 11 - Henry Cuyler Bunner, US novelist and poet, 40
- May 13 - Nora Perry, US poet, journalist and children's author, 64
- June 8 - Jules Simon, French philosopher, 81
- June 22 - Sir Augustus Harris, actor, dramatist and theatre manager, 44
- July 1 - Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom's Cabin author, 85
- July 11 - Ernst Curtius, German historian, 81
- July 16 - Edmond de Goncourt, French critic and founder of the Prix Goncourt, 74
- August 17 - Mary Abigail Dodge, essayist, 63 (cerebral haemorrhage)
- October 3 - William Morris, poet, novelist and designer, 62
- October 8 - George du Maurier, Trilby author, 62
- November 26 - Coventry Patmore, poet, 73
- December 10 - Alfred Nobel, founder of the Nobel Prize for Literature, 63 (cerebral haemorrhage)
- Raby, Peter (2008). "Introduction". The Importance of Being Earnest and Other Plays. Worlds Classics. Oxford University Press. p. xiii.
- Bristow, Joseph (2009). Oscar Wilde and Modern Culture: The Making of a Legend. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press. pp. 96, 106, 193. ISBN 978-0-8214-1837-6.
- The New York Times, October 10, 1896. Inaugural book review issue (announced on page 4, column 1)
- Hoffman, Adina; Cole, Peter (2011). Sacred Trash: The Lost and Found World of the Cairo Geniza. Schocken Books. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-8052-4258-4.
- Kingsford, R. J. L. (1970). The Publishers Association 1896-1946. Cambridge University Press.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Houssaye, Arsène". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Eduard Theiner (1982), "Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB) (in German) (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot) 13: 422–423",
- "Manager Harris Dead" (PDF). The New York Times. 23 June 1896. Retrieved 21 August 2009.