1899 in Australia
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Governors of the Australian colonies
- Governor of New South Wales – Henry Brand, 2nd Viscount Hampden (until 5 March), then William Lygon, 7th Earl Beauchamp (from 18 May)
- Governor of Queensland – Charles Cochrane-Baillie, 2nd Baron Lamington
- Governor of South Australia – Sir Thomas Buxton, 3rd Baronet (until 29 March), then Hallam Tennyson, 2nd Baron Tennyson (from 10 April)
- Governor of Tasmania – Jenico Preston, 14th Viscount Gormanston
- Governor of Victoria – Thomas Brassey, 1st Earl Brassey
- Governor of Western Australia – Sir Gerard Smith
Premiers of the Australian colonies
- Premier of New South Wales – George Reid (until 13 September) then William Lyne
- Premier of Queensland – James Dickson (until 1 December), Anderson Dawson (until 7 December) then Robert Philp
- Premier of South Australia – Charles Kingston (until 1 December), Vaiben Louis Solomon (until 8 December) then Frederick Holder
- Premier of Tasmania – Edward Braddon (until 12 October) then Elliott Lewis
- Premier of Victoria – George Turner (until 5 December) then Allan McLean
- Premier of Western Australia – John Forrest
- 1 January – The Police Regulation Act 1898 is enacted in Tasmania, unifying several small regional police forces to form the Tasmanian Police Force.
- 22 January – Leaders of the six Australian colonies meet in Melbourne to discuss confederation.
- 4 March – Cyclone Mahina strikes Bathurst Bay in Queensland. Approximately 400 persons are killed, and the pearling fleet is sunk. A storm surge of up to 14 metres sweeps 5 kilometres inland.
- 24 April – The 1,280 ton barque Loch Sloy hits rocks off Kangaroo Island and sinks, killing 31 persons.
- 8 December – An electric tram service commences in Sydney, along George Street from the railway to Circular Quay.
- Colonial soldiers leave to fight in the Second Boer War.
Science and technology
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Arts and literature
- 8 October – The word "wowser" is first used by John Norton, editor of the Melbourne Truth newspaper.
- George Washington Lambert wins the Wynne Prize for landscape painting or figure sculpture for his landscape Across the Blacksoil Plains
- Dot and the Kangaroo, a children's book by Ethel Pedley, is published.
- On Our Selection by Steele Rudd is published.
- Past Carin' written by Henry Lawson.
- 7 January – John Collins, Chief of Naval Staff and High Commissioner to New Zealand (died 1989)
- 17 January – Nevil Shute, writer (died 1960)
- 21 January – Ernestine Hill, travel writer (died 1972)
- 22 February – Ian Clunies Ross, scientist (died 1959)
- 7 March – Eddie Ward, politician (died 1963)
- 3 September – Frank Macfarlane Burnet, biologist and Nobel Prize winner (died 1985)
- 24 September – William Dobell, artist, sculptor and painter (died 1970)
- 21 October – Herb Steinohrt, rugby league footballer (died 1985)
- 14 December – Frank McMillan, rugby league footballer and coach (died 1966)
- 21 February - George Ferguson Bowen (born 1821), Governor of Queensland
- 13 April - James Service (born 1823), former Premier of Victoria