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18th Battalion (New Zealand)

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18th Battalion
(18th Armoured Regiment)
Tanks of 18 Armoured Regiment (NZ).jpg
Tanks of 18th Armoured Regiment waiting to move up for the crossing at Senio, Italy
Active 1939–45
Country  New Zealand
Branch Crest of the New Zealand Army.jpg New Zealand Military Forces
Type Infantry (1939 to 1942)
Armoured (1943 to 1945)
Size ~760 personnel[1]
Part of 4th Brigade, 2nd Division
Engagements

Second World War

Battle of Greece
Battle of Crete
North African Campaign
Operation Crusader
First Battle of El Alamein
Italian Campaign
Battle of Monte Cassino
Disbanded December 1945

The 18th Battalion was an infantry battalion of the New Zealand Military Forces which served during the Second World War as part of the New Zealand 2nd Division.

The 18th Battalion was formed in New Zealand in September 1939 and after a period of training, it embarked for the Middle East and then onto Greece in 1941 as part of the 2nd New Zealand Division. It participated in the Battles of Greece and later in Crete. Evacuated from Crete, it then fought in the North African Campaign and suffered heavy losses during Operation Crusader. Brought back up to strength, the battalion participated in the breakout of the 2nd New Zealand Division from Minqar Qaim in June 1942, where it had been encircled by the 21st Panzer Division. The following month, the battalion fought in the First Battle of El Alamein.

In October 1943, the battalion was converted to armour and designated 18th Armoured Regiment. To replace men lost at El Alamein, personnel were drawn from a tank brigade being formed in New Zealand. The regiment spent a year in Egypt training with Sherman tanks, before embarking for Italy in October 1943 to join up with the rest of the 2nd New Zealand Division. It participated in the Italian Campaign, fighting in actions at Orsogna and later at Cassino. The regiment finished the war in Trieste and remained there for several weeks until the large numbers of Yugoslav partisans also present in the city withdrew. Not required for service in the Pacific theatre of operations, the regiment was disestablished in late 1945.

History[edit]

Formation and training[edit]

The 18th Battalion was formed in New Zealand in September 1939 under the command of Lieutenant Colonel John Gray and was the first of three infantry battalions making up the 4th Infantry Brigade.[Note 1] Its personnel, all volunteers, were drawn from the upper half of the North Island of New Zealand and formed into Auckland, Hauraki/Bay of Plenty/Rotorua, Northland and Waikato companies.[3]

For a period in 1940, the 18th Battalion was based at Maadi military camp, seen here in 1941 with Cairo in the background

After a period of rudimentary training, firstly at Hopuhopu Military Camp and then at Papakura,[2] the battalion departed New Zealand on the Orient liner Orion for the Middle East on 5 January 1940 as part of the 4th Infantry Brigade, 2nd New Zealand Division.[4] The battalion arrived at its base in Maadi, Egypt, in mid-February,[5] after which it undertook further training. Following Italy's entry into the war in June, the battalion moved to Baggush to perform garrison duty. It remained there for most of the next 12 months,[6] and during this time suffered a number of Italian air raids which resulted in casualties.[7]

Greece[edit]

In early 1941, the British Government anticipated an invasion of Greece by the Germans and decided to send troops to support the Greeks. The 2nd New Zealand Division was one of a number of Allied units dispatched to Greece in early March.[8] The 4th Infantry Brigade was tasked with the defence of the Aliakmon Line in northern Greece with the New Zealand Division positioned on the northern side of Mount Olympus. On 6 April, the Germans invaded Greece and advanced so rapidly that their forces quickly threatened the Florina Gap. The 4th Infantry Brigade was withdrawn to the Servia Pass where, on 15 April, the 18th Battalion fended off initial probing attacks. Despite being in good defensive positions, the brigade and its constituent battalions was withdrawn two days later due to pressure on their flanks.[9]

Carried out under the cover of night, the withdrawal did not go smoothly and at one stage two companies of the battalion got lost before making their way to safety.[10] Once clear of the Servia Pass, the battalion's transport was subjected to several air raids before making it to the Thermopylae Line, the next defensive position for the New Zealanders.[11] On 22 April, the Allies decided to abandon Greece and the battalion moved out the same day with the rest of the 4th Brigade[12] as part of an intended rearguard. Originally it was to hold a gorge through which other units would pass for 24 hours but the battalion ended up remaining there for three days. During the intervening period, the intended embarkation route for the battalion's departure from Greece was cut off by the Germans and so the entire brigade made its way to Porto Rafti to the east of Athens[13] where the battalion was one of the first units of the 2nd New Zealand Division to be shipped to the island of Crete.[13] Total casualties during the campaign in Greece were 23 killed in action and 42 others wounded. A total of 117 men, mostly personnel recuperating in hospitals in Athens who were unable to evade the Germans, were captured.[14]

Crete[edit]

Situated along vital air and sea lanes of communication in the middle of the Mediterranean, Crete was of considerable strategic importance to both sides and, after the conclusion of the campaign in Greece, the Allies fully expected that the Germans would attempt an invasion.[15][16] The 4th Brigade was stationed as a reserve force in the area around Galatas with the 18th Battalion near the newly established general hospital.[17] When the airborne invasion began on 20 May, the battalion quickly dealt with a company of Fallschirmjäger (paratroopers) that landed near them.[18] It carried out mopping up operations and patrolled the area for the next two days before assisting the 19th Battalion in an attack on Fallschirmjäger that had established a strong defensive position nearby.[19]

Despite heavy casualties during the initial attack, the Germans were able to land reinforcements and the situation on the island quickly deteriorated for the Allies. The brigade had abandoned its initial positions and moved to a new location to the west of Galatas to eliminate the threat that it would become separated from the 5th Infantry Brigade.[20] On 25 May, the 18th Battalion had to deal with a full-scale attack by Fallschirmjäger. This caused heavy casualties and a large portion of one of the battalion's company was captured. Despite reinforcements arriving from the 20th Battalion and the best efforts of Gray in rounding up stragglers, the Galatas position was breached and the township captured.[21] Some battalion personnel, led by Gray, along with the bulk of the 23rd Battalion, participated in an attack that briefly took back the township but it later had to be abandoned again after further fighting.[22] The battalion was then withdrawn to the east as the order to evacuate Crete was received, making its way towards Suda Bay, where Allied ships were taking troops off the beaches. Along the way, they were subjected to heavy air raids, one of which killed a company commander, Captain Jack Lyon, the Member of Parliament for the Waitemata electorate.[23] During the evacuation of the 4th Brigade, which took place from Sfakia on 30–31 May, the 18th Battalion formed a rearguard helping police and maintain order; it was the last battalion of the brigade taken off.[24] Casualties during the fighting on Crete were heavy for the 18th Battalion, with 105 men killed or missing and 110 more taken prisoner.[25]

North Africa[edit]

Back in its former base in Egypt and with its ranks restored with 400 reinforcements that arrived in June, the battalion began intensive weapons training.[26] In September it moved to Baggush where on occasion it worked alongside tanks in training exercises.[27] In November 1941, the battalion, now commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Peart as his predecessor had been hospitalised, participated in Operation Crusader as part of the British Eighth Army and was engaged in offensive operations towards the Sidi Azeiz area.[28] On the night of 25 November, along with the 20th Battalion, it was tasked with the night-time capture of Belhamed, a hill adjacent to Sidi Rezegh.[29] The objective achieved, the battalion held the hill for three days before it swapped its positions with the 20th Battalion. On 30 November, the 15th Panzer Division surrounded and attacked Belhamed. While the 20th Battalion was effectively destroyed, the 18th Battalion managed to evacuate in time to the British defences surrounding Tobruk and avoided being captured.[30] It manned the lines, fending off German attacks, until 11 December when it was withdrawn to Baggush.[31]

After a period near Cairo, in February 1942, the 2nd New Zealand Division was dispatched to Syria to defend against a possible attack through Turkey on the Middle East oilfields by the Germans.[32] Along with the rest of the 4th Brigade it worked on defences to the north of Damascus[33] before the whole division was recalled to Libya on 17 June following the attack on the Eighth Army's Gazala Line by Panzer Army Africa.[34] When the division was encircled at Minqar Qaim by the 21st Panzer Division on 27 June, the battalion, temporarily detached from the rest of the 4th Brigade, was one of the lead units in the subsequent breakout that night.[35]

The battalion was withdrawn to the Alamein line after a brief period of recovery at the Kaponga Box.[36] Now commanded by Lieutenant Colonel R. J. Lynch due to Gray being promoted to brigadier and given command of the 4th Brigade,[Note 2] it served as security for the divisional headquarters from late June to early July as the entire division relocated several times during this period.[37] On the evening of 14 July, the battalion, now back with its parent brigade, was part of the attack on Ruweisat Ridge, held by the enemy.[38] Although an Italian strongpoint caused the battalion to scatter, in piecemeal fashion, it advanced to the western end of the ridge taking several prisoners on the way.[39] A German counterattack in the afternoon of 15 July which overwhelmed the 19th and 20th Battalions also caused heavy losses amongst the 18th Battalion, including Lynch, but many men were able to return to the Allied lines.[40] Following the effective destruction of the 19th and 20th Battalions, the 18th Battalion remained in the field attached to the 5th Brigade. It then supported an attack by the 6th Brigade on El Mreir.[41] Inadequately supported by armour, the attack proved a failure although the battalion escaped with relatively few casualties.[42] It remained in the line throughout August and into September but, having been reduced to just 350 personnel, it was withdrawn to Maadi to rejoin the reconstituted 4th Brigade.[43]

Conversion to armour[edit]

It had previously been decided to form an armoured brigade to provide tank support to the 2nd New Zealand Division and as a result, the 1st New Zealand Army Tank Brigade was formed. This brigade was still undergoing training in New Zealand in September when it was decided to convert the 4th Brigade to armour instead. Personnel were transferred from the tank brigade in New Zealand to bring the 4th Brigade back up to strength. As one of the constituent units of the brigade, the 18th Battalion was officially re-designated the 18th Armoured Regiment, with three squadrons of tanks, on 5 October 1942.[44] One squadron was to be equipped with Crusaders[Note 3] with the other two squadrons operating Shermans.[46] The regiment would spend the next year in training under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Clive Pleasants, who had taken over command after the death of Lynch. By May 1943, many personnel had been on active duty for well over three years. The majority of these men were returned to New Zealand on furlough.[47]

Lieutenant Colonel Clive Pleasants oversaw the conversion of the 18th Battalion from infantry to armour and led it through the early stages of the Italian Campaign

With the close of the North African campaign in May 1943, attention then turned to the European theatre of operations. Despite a preference amongst some sections of the New Zealand government for the 2nd New Zealand Division to be redeployed to the Pacific to fight against the Japanese, it was decided that the division would remain in Europe and continue its service with the Eighth Army. Accordingly, in October, the division was transferred to Italy.[48]

Italy[edit]

The 18th Armoured Regiment disembarked at Taranto on 22 October 1943 and gradually travelled north towards the Sangro River,[49] which it duly crossed on 3 December.[50] In the following weeks, the regiment supported the 5th and 6th Brigades in their attack on Orsogna, as part of the Moro River Campaign. Although the infantry made some gains, the German defences were too strong and the attack soon faded into a stalemate, with a number of back and forth actions as winter set in,[51] which led to many of the regiment's tanks becoming stuck in the sodden ground.[52] Offensive operations around Orsogna ceased in late December[53] and the New Zealanders withdrew from the area on 13 January 1944.[54]

Following its withdrawal from the area around Orsogna, the 2nd New Zealand Division was one of a number of divisions that were transferred from the Eighth Army to the Fifth Army, then engaged on the western side of the Apennines. This was part of an overall strategy to breach the Gustav Line and break an otherwise deadlocked Italian front. Together with the 4th Indian Division and supporting British and American artillery, the division formed the New Zealand Corps with Major General Bernard Freyberg in command. The corps moved to Cassino, the defenders of which had resisted American forces for several weeks.[51]

As at Orsogna, the 18th Armoured Regiment was to play a supporting role in the forthcoming Cassino attack, with the infantry of the 5th and 6th Brigades bearing the brunt of the battle. When the attack began on 15 March, the regiment was initially held as a reserve, ready to exploit any breakthrough by the infantry but this did not eventuate. The infantry struggled to make progress in the face of determined resistance.[55] The regiment's tanks were first used at Cassino as artillery support for two weeks, each squadron being rotated in three-day stints to a position overlooking the town.[56] Then in mid-April, one squadron was detached to remain on the Cassino front while the other two squadrons were withdrawn for training.[57] The regiment remained fragmented into May, for once training was completed, another squadron was detached and sent into Cassino itself to man tanks which had been effectively setup as pillboxes.[58]

By the end of May, the regiment was reunited and at full strength.[59] It supported the infantry brigades as they advanced to Florence, duly entering the city in August. After this, the 2nd New Zealand Division was transferred to the I Canadian Corps, then on the Adriatic Coast, and advanced up to Rimini.[55] On 19 and 20 October, the 4th Armoured Brigade was involved in its first and only action as a brigade in an attack towards the Savio River, with the 18th Armoured Regiment on the right flank. This was primarily a tank action, in contrast to previous battles in which the armour supported the infantry.[60] The attack was a success and pushed the Germans across the Savio, although their progress had been slower than expected because of poor weather and muddy conditions.[61]

A Sherman of 18th Armoured Regiment ready to cross the Po River in Italy

The New Zealanders advanced to the Lamone River in anticipation of a crossing but instead supported the British 46th Division in its attack across the river on 3 December. During this operation, the tanks of the 18th Regiment fired 6,200 shells in a single day. It then attacked towards the Senio River, supporting infantry from the 5th Brigade.[62] The division was positioned along the Senio River for three months, over the worst of the winter period.[63] The regiment spent most of this time behind the lines at Forlì or Faenza, or on short spells on the Senio frontlines.[64]

Relieved by a Polish unit in March 1945,[65] the regiment returned to the front lines in early April after a period of rest.[66] It made a series of advances against the retreating German rearguard and on 2 May, the 2nd New Zealand Division entered Trieste. While most of the German garrison quickly surrendered, it was necessary to deal with some diehard elements who refused to surrender to either the New Zealanders or the Yugoslav partisans also present in the city. The partisans were reluctant to allow Germans to surrender to the New Zealanders, and the regiment remained in Trieste for several weeks until the large numbers of Yugoslav partisans also present in the city withdrew.[67]

Not required for service in the Pacific theatre of operations, the regiment was disestablished in December 1945.[67] During the war, the 18th Battalion and its successor, the 18th Armoured Regiment, lost nearly 320 officers and men either killed in action or who later died of their wounds. Of the exactly 350 personnel made prisoners of war, a further 21 men died while in captivity.[68]

Honours[edit]

Seven members of the battalion, including three of its commanders,[Note 4] were awarded the Distinguished Service Order while another member was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire and a second was made a member of the same order. Nine officers were awarded the Military Cross while two others received the Greek Military Cross. Three soldiers received the Distinguished Conduct Medal and 26 others the Military Medal. Twenty-one soldiers received awards of the Greek Silver and Bronze medals.[69]

The 18th Battalion and its successor, the 18th Armoured Regiment, was awarded the following battle honours:

Mount Olympus, Servia Pass, Platamon Tunnel, Tempe Gorge, Elasson, Molos, Greece 1941, Crete, Maleme, Galatas, Canea, 42nd Street, Withdrawal to Sphakia, Middle East 1941-44, Tobruk 1941, Sidi Rezegh 1941, Omars, Belhamed, Mersa Matruh, Minqar Qaim, Defence of Alamein Line, Ruweisat Ridge, El Mreir, Alam el Halfa, North Africa 1940-42, The Sangro, Castel Frentano, Orsogna, Advance to Florence, San Michele, Paula Line, Celle, Pisciatello, The Senio, Santerno Crossing, Bologna, Idice Bridgehead, Italy 1943-45.[70][Note 5]

Commanding officers[edit]

The following officers served as commanding officer of the 18th Battalion:[71]

  • Lieutenant Colonel J. R. Gray (September 1939 – July 1941; August–November 1941; March–June 1942);
  • Lieutenant Colonel J. N. Peart (July–August 1941; November 1941 – March 1942);
  • Lieutenant Colonel R. J. Lynch (June–July 1942);
  • Lieutenant Colonel C. L. Pleasants (July 1942 – December 1943; January–March 1944);
  • Lieutenant Colonel J. B. Ferguson (December 1943 – January 1944; July 1944 – January 1945);[Note 6]
  • Lieutenant Colonel H. A. Robinson (March–July 1944; March–December 1945);
  • Lieutenant Colonel J. M. Elliott (February–March 1945);
  • Lieutenant Colonel H. H. Parata (March–May 1945);
  • Lieutenant Colonel A. S. Playle (June–December 1945).

Notes[edit]

Footnotes
  1. ^ The other two infantry battalions were the 19th and 20th.[2]
  2. ^ Gray was killed in an air raid shortly afterwards.[37]
  3. ^ These were later replaced with Shermans.[45]
  4. ^ Parata, Pleasants, and Ferguson.[69]
  5. ^ The battle honours awarded for its work as an infantry battalion were entrusted to the Waikato, Auckland, Hauraki and Northland regiments. Those awarded to the 18th Armoured Regiment are also entrusted to the Waikato Regiment.[70]
  6. ^ Ferguson had the rank of major during his first period in command of the battalion.[71]
Citations
  1. ^ Dawson, 1961, p. 2
  2. ^ a b Dawson, 1961, p. 6
  3. ^ Dawson, 1961, pp. 1–3
  4. ^ Dawson, 1961, p. 13
  5. ^ Dawson, 1961, pp. 30–31
  6. ^ McGibbon, 2000, pp. 263–265
  7. ^ Dawson, 1961, p. 59
  8. ^ McClymont, 1959, p. 103
  9. ^ Dawson, 1961, pp. 94–97
  10. ^ Dawson, 1961, pp. 104–106
  11. ^ Dawson, 1961, pp. 107–108
  12. ^ Dawson, 1961, p. 110
  13. ^ a b Dawson, 1961, pp. 118–119
  14. ^ Dawson, 1961, p. 122
  15. ^ Clark, 2000, p. 18
  16. ^ McGibbon, 2000, pp. 124–128
  17. ^ Dawson, 1961, pp. 124–125
  18. ^ Dawson, 1961, pp. 129–131
  19. ^ Dawson, 1961, pp. 136–137
  20. ^ Dawson, 1961, pp. 141–142
  21. ^ Dawson, 1961, pp. 148–151
  22. ^ Dawson, 1961, pp. 154–155
  23. ^ Dawson, 1961, pp. 156–157
  24. ^ Dawson, 1961, pp. 166–167
  25. ^ Dawson, 1961, p. 168
  26. ^ Dawson, 1961, pp. 170–171
  27. ^ Dawson, 1961, pp. 175–177
  28. ^ Dawson, 1961, pp. 181–182
  29. ^ Dawson, 1961, pp. 198–199
  30. ^ Dawson, 1961, pp. 216–219
  31. ^ Dawson, 1961, pp. 229–230
  32. ^ Dawson, 1961, pp. 232–235
  33. ^ Dawson, 1961, p. 239
  34. ^ Dawson, 1961, p. 247
  35. ^ Dawson, 1961, pp. 259–260
  36. ^ Dawson, 1961, p. 265
  37. ^ a b Dawson, 1961, p. 270
  38. ^ Dawson, 1961, pp. 275–276
  39. ^ Dawson, 1961, pp. 277–278
  40. ^ Dawson, 1961, pp. 289–290
  41. ^ Dawson, 1961, pp. 295–297
  42. ^ Dawson, 1961, p. 305
  43. ^ Dawson, 1961, p. 327
  44. ^ Dawson, 1961, pp. 329–332
  45. ^ Dawson, 1961, p. 343
  46. ^ Dawson, 1961, p. 337
  47. ^ Dawson, 1961, p. 340
  48. ^ McGibbon, 2000, p. 248
  49. ^ Dawson, 1961, pp. 351–352
  50. ^ Plowman, 2010, p. 51
  51. ^ a b McGibbon, 2000, p. 249
  52. ^ Plowman, 2010, pp. 85–86
  53. ^ Plowman, 2010, p. 139
  54. ^ Plowman, 2010, p. 147
  55. ^ a b McGibbon, 2000, p. 251
  56. ^ Dawson, 1961, pp. 432–434
  57. ^ Dawson, 1961, p. 437
  58. ^ Dawson, 1961, p. 443
  59. ^ Dawson, 1961, p. 459
  60. ^ Dawson, 1961, pp. 568–569
  61. ^ Dawson, 1961, pp. 581–582
  62. ^ Dawson, 1961, pp. 590–593
  63. ^ Dawson, 1961, p. 603
  64. ^ Dawson, 1961, p. 605
  65. ^ Dawson, 1961, p. 608
  66. ^ Dawson, 1961, pp. 611–612
  67. ^ a b Dawson, 1961, pp. 648–651
  68. ^ Dawson, 1961, p. 663
  69. ^ a b Dawson, 1961, pp. 664–665
  70. ^ a b Mills, T.F. "18th Armoured Regiment, 2NZEF". www.regiments.org. Archived from the original on 15 July 2007. Retrieved 26 November 2014. 
  71. ^ a b Dawson, 1961, p. 666

References[edit]

  • Clark, Alan (2000) [1962]. The Fall of Crete. London: Cassell. ISBN 0-304-35226-8. 
  • Dawson, W. D. (1961). 18 Battalion and Armoured Regiment. Official History of New Zealand in the Second World War 1939–45. Wellington, New Zealand: War History Branch. OCLC 11568803. 
  • McClymont, W. G. (1959). To Greece. Official History of New Zealand in the Second World War 1939–45. Wellington, New Zealand: War History Branch. OCLC 4373298. 
  • McGibbon, Ian, ed. (2000). The Oxford Companion to New Zealand Military History. Auckland, New Zealand: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-558376-0. 
  • Plowman, Jeffrey (2010). Orsogna: New Zealand's First Italian Battle. Christchurch, New Zealand: Willsonscott. ISBN 978-1-877427-32-9.