18th Street gang

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18th Street Gang
18th Street gang graffiti.jpg
18th Street Gang Graffiti
Founded 1960's[1][2]
Years active 1960's – present[1]
Territory Central America, the western and southern areas of the United States, Mexico
Ethnicity Mostly Central and South Americans
Membership 35,000
Criminal activities Drug trafficking, assault, arson, robbery, kidnapping, pandering, money laundering, extortion, arms trafficking, human trafficking, theft, murder, racketeering, illegal immigration, illegal gambling, identity document forgery and fraud
Allies Mexican Mafia, Hoover Criminals
Rivals MS-13, Bloods, Latin Kings, Norteños, Sureños, Clanton 14 Nortenos, Los Zetas[3]

18th Street gang, also known as M18, Calle 18, Barrio 18, La18 or Mara-18 in Central America,[1][4][5][6] is a multi-ethnic transnational criminal organization that started as a street gang in the Rampart area of Los Angeles, California. They are considered to be the largest transnational criminal gang in Los Angeles and it is estimated that there are tens of thousands of members in Los Angeles County alone. Their wide-ranging illegal activities and notoriety has come to the attention of the FBI and Immigration and Customs Enforcement. In the early 2000s, the government initiated raids against known and suspected gang members netting hundreds of arrests across the country.

History[edit]

18th Street gang started near 18th Street and Union Avenue in the Rampart District of Los Angeles.[1] There is conflicting information as to the exact area, but this is a generally accepted area by most academic sources. They were originally part of Clanton 14 but wanted to make a separate clique called Clanton 18th Street and allow immigrants the opportunity to join. This proposal was rejected by the Clanton 14, which led to the formation of the 18th Street gang. The two gangs have been bitter rivals ever since.[7] The 18th Street gang grew by expanding its membership to other nationalities and races, and it was among the first multiracial, multi-ethnic gangs in Los Angeles.[1] In the beginning, they were made up largely of second-generation Hispanics.[1] As the 18th Street gang began to battle with more established Hispanic gangs, they began to recruit outside the Hispanic community. There are approximately 200 separate individual autonomous gangs operating under the same name within separate barrios in the San Fernando Valley, the San Gabriel Valley, the South Bay, Riverside California, East Los Angeles, South Los Angeles, Downtown Los Angeles, Mid-City, Pico Union, Inglewood, Cudahy, Lynwood, South Gate, Huntington Park, Maywood and Orange County, according to the latest figures from the NDIC.[citation needed] In the last decade,[when?] The Federal Bureau of Investigation has initiated wide-scale raids against known and suspected gang members, netting hundreds of arrests across the country.

Location[edit]

The majority of 18th Street cliques operating throughout Southern California, other states and internationally are the result of Los Angeles members migrating to other areas and establishing their own cliques. 18th Street cliques have been identified in 120 cities in 37 states and the District of Columbia in the United States, as well internationally in Australia, Canada, England, France, Germany, Lebanon, Peru, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador.[8][9]

Culture[edit]

18th Street gang members are required to abide by a strict set of rules. Failure to obey the word of a gang leader, or to show proper respect to a fellow gang member, may result in an 18-second beating, or even execution for more serious offenses.[10] According to the FBI, some factions of the 18th Street gang have developed a high level of sophistication and organization. 18th Street gang members often identify themselves with the number 18 on their clothing and sporting clothing from sports teams such as the Los Angeles Dodgers, Dallas Cowboys, Los Angeles Lakers and Oakland Raiders. 18th Street will use the symbols XV3, XVIII, 666, 99,(9+9=18), and 3-dots in their graffiti and tattoos. 18th Street colors are blue and black; blue is to represent Surenos (despite not being affiliated with them) used to pay tribute to The Mexican Mafia, and black is to represent the original color for the gang. The 18th Street gang is occasionally referred to as the "Children's Army" because of its recruitment of elementary and middle-school aged youth. They also allow other races to join their ranks making the gang Multi-ethnic.[11] In El Salvador it is common for members of the gang to be tattooed on the face with a large "18". In many cases the tattoo covers the entire face.[12]

Criminal activity[edit]

18th Street gang signs.

"We recognize them as one of the most violent street gangs and one of the most prolific in the United States," says Special agent George Rodriguez, who until his retirement oversaw investigations for the federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. Cars are stolen and homes are burglarized by the gang routinely. On average, someone in Los Angeles County is assaulted or robbed by 18th Streeters every day. The gang has left a bloody trail a pace three times that of many of the city’s most active gangs. 18th Street is a well established gang that is involved in all areas of street-crime. Some members have even become involved in producing fraudulent Immigration and Customs Enforcement identification cards and food stamps. Several 18th Street gang members have reached a higher level of sophistication and organization in their illicit activities than other gangs. While their main source of income is street-level distribution of drugs, they also have been linked to murders, assaults, arson, copyright infringement, extortion, human trafficking, illegal immigration, kidnapping, prostitution, robbery, and weapons trafficking, as well as other crimes.[13] 18th Street Gang has also been implicated in the high-profile kidnapping and murder of the 16-year-old brother of internationally renowned Honduran football player Wilson Palacios.[14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Ribando, C. U.S. Department of States, Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division. (2005). Gangs in central america. Retrieved from The Office of Electronic Information, Bureau of Public Affairs website: http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/47140.pdf
  2. ^ Morales, G. (2007). 18th Street. Retrieved from http://www.gangpreventionservices.org/18th.asp
  3. ^ Alonso, Alex (2012). "18th Street Gang in Los Angeles County | Shatto Park | Columbia Lil Cycos | Alsace | Red Shield | South Central | Smiley Dr | Rimpau | 106th | Grand View | Street Gangs Resource Center". streetgangs.com. Retrieved 29 February 2012. 
  4. ^ Lynch, T. W. (2008). "The evolution of modern Central American street gangs and the political violence they present: Case studies of Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras". Theses and Dissertations. Paper 370.http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/etd/370
  5. ^ U.S. Department of Homeland Securtiy, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. (2011). Hsi dismantles '18th street' gang's fraudulent document ring. Retrieved from website: http://www.ice.gov/news/releases/1109/110909newyork.htm
  6. ^ Berlin, D., Brizius, E., Bump, M., Garshelis, D., Khonsari, N., Pinheiro, E., Rhudy, K., & Smith, J. (2007). Between the border and the street: A comparative look at gang reduction policies and migration in the United States and Guatemala. Informally published manuscript, Georgetown University Law Center, Human Rights Institute, Georgetown University, Washington D.C., USA. Retrieved from http://scholarship.law.georgetown.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1003&context=hri_papers
  7. ^ Zilberg, E. (2011). Space of detention: The making of a transnational gang crisis between Los Angeles and San Salvador. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
  8. ^ 18th Street Gang: A Violent Transnational Criminal Street Gang
  9. ^ Bruneau, Thomas (1 December 2011). Maras: Gang Violence and Security in Central America (Google eBook). University of Texas Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-292-72928-5. Retrieved 3 March 2014. 
  10. ^ Pollack, Ricardo (January 24, 2005). "Americas | Gang life tempts Salvador teens". BBC News. Archived from the original on 12 August 2010. Retrieved August 9, 2010. 
  11. ^ "California's Most Violent Export, 18th Street Gang". Streetgangs.com. Retrieved August 9, 2010. 
  12. ^ Ruck, Joanna. "El Salvador gangs celebrate a day without murders - in pictures". The Guardian. Retrieved May 2012. 
  13. ^ National Gang Intelligence Center – National Gang Threat Assessment 2009
  14. ^ "Tottenham's Wilson Palacios' Brother Murdered By Kidnappers in Honduras". Bleacher Report. May 10, 2009. Retrieved August 9, 2010. 

External links[edit]