18th United States Congress

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18th United States Congress
USCapitol1827A.gif
United States Capitol (1827)

Duration: March 4, 1823 – March 4, 1825

Senate President: Daniel D. Tompkins
Senate Pres. pro tem: John Gaillard
House Speaker: Henry Clay
Members: 48 Senators
213 Representatives
3 Non-voting members
Senate Majority: Democratic-Republican
House Majority: Democratic-Republican

Sessions
1st: December 1, 1823 – May 27, 1824
2nd: December 6, 1824 – March 3, 1825
<17th 19th>

The Eighteenth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1823 to March 4, 1825, during the seventh and eighth years of James Monroe's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Fourth Census of the United States in 1820. Both chambers had a Democratic-Republican majority.

Major events[edit]

Major legislation[edit]

Party summary[edit]

The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, and includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.

Senate[edit]

Affiliation Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total
Democratic-Republican Federalist Vacant
Adams-Clay
(A-DR)
Crawford
(C-DR)
Jackson
(J-DR)

(A-F)
End of previous Congress 43 4 47 1
Begin 11 20 11 4 46 2
End 12 5 48 0
Final voting share 89.6% 10.4%
Beginning of next Congress Jacksonian: 25 45 3
Anti-Jacksonian: 20

House of Representatives[edit]

Affiliation Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total
Democratic-Republican Federalist Vacant
Adams-Clay
(A-DR)
Crawford
(C-DR)
Jackson
(J-DR)
Adams-Clay
(A-F)
Crawford
(C-F)
Jackson
(J-F)
End of previous Congress 154 31 185 2
Begin 71 53 64 15 2 7 212 1
End 72 213 0
Final voting share 88.7% 11.3%
Beginning of next Congress Jacksonian: 104 213 0
Adams: 109

Leadership[edit]

President of the Senate
Daniel D. Tompkins

Senate[edit]

House of Representatives[edit]

Members[edit]

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.

Senate[edit]

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1826; Class 2 meant their term began with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1828; and Class 3 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1824.

House of Representatives[edit]

The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.

Changes in membership[edit]

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.

Senate[edit]

  • deaths: 3
  • resignations: 3
  • vacancy: 2
  • Total seats with changes: 8


State
(class)
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
New Jersey
(1)
Vacant Samuel L. Southard resigned at end of previous Congress Joseph McIlvaine (A-DR) Elected November 12, 1823
Delaware
(1)
Vacant Caesar A. Rodney resigned in previous term Thomas Clayton (A-F) Elected January 8, 1824
Connecticut
(1)
Elijah Boardman (J-DR) Died August 18, 1823 Henry W. Edwards (J-DR) Elected October 8, 1823
Louisiana
(3)
James Brown (A-DR) Resigned December 10, 1823 after being appointed Minister to France Josiah S. Johnston (A-DR) Elected January 15, 1824
Illinois
(3)
Ninian Edwards (A-DR) Resigned March 4, 1824 after being appointed Minister to Mexico John McLean (C-DR) Elected December 6, 1824
Louisiana
(2)
Henry Johnson (A-DR) Resigned May 27, 1824 to run for Governor of Louisiana Dominique J. Bouligny (A-DR) Elected November 19, 1824
Virginia
(2)
John Taylor (C-DR) Died August 21, 1824 Littleton W. Tazewell (J-DR) Elected December 7, 1824
Georgia
(2)
Nicholas Ware (C-DR) Died September 7, 1824 Thomas W. Cobb (C-DR) Elected December 6, 1824

House of Representatives[edit]

  • deaths: 3
  • resignations: 5
  • contested election: 2
  • Total seats with changes: 10


District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date successor
seated
Massachusetts
10th
Vacant John Bailey was declared not entitled to seat in previous election, and was elected to replace himself in special election John Bailey (A-DR) Seated December 13, 1824
New York
28th
William B. Rochester (A-DR) Resigned April 21, 1823 William Woods (A-DR) Seated November 3, 1823
Pennsylvania
13th
John Tod (J-DR) Resigned some time in 1824 Alexander Thomson (J-DR) Seated December 6, 1824
New York
29th
Isaac Wilson (A-DR) Lost contested election January 7, 1824 Parmenio Adams (A-DR) Seated January 7, 1824
Virginia
13th
William Lee Ball (C-DR) Died February 29, 1824 John Taliaferro (C-DR) Seated March 24, 1824
North Carolina
2nd
Hutchins G. Burton (C-DR) Resigned March 23, 1824 after being elected Governor of North Carolina George Outlaw (C-DR) Seated January 19, 1825
Pennsylvania
8th
Thomas J. Rogers (J-DR) Resigned April 20, 1824 George Wolf (J-DR) Seated December 9, 1824
Indiana
1st
William Prince (J-DR) Died September 8, 1824 Jacob Call (J-DR) Seated December 23, 1824
Vermont
3rd
Charles Rich (A-DR) Died October 15, 1824 Henry Olin (A-DR) Seated December 13, 1824
Georgia
At-large
Thomas W. Cobb (C-DR) Resigned December 6, 1824 after being elected to the US Senate Richard H. Wilde (C-DR) Seated February 7, 1825

Employees[edit]

Senate[edit]

House of Representatives[edit]

References[edit]

  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 

External links[edit]