1904 in Australia
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- Monarch – King Edward VII
- Governor-General – Hallam Tennyson, 2nd Baron Tennyson (until 21 January), then Henry Northcote, 1st Baron Northcote
- Prime Minister – Alfred Deakin (until 27 April), Chris Watson (until 18 August), then George Reid
- Premier of New South Wales – John See (until 14 June), Thomas Waddell (until 29 August), then Joseph Carruthers
- Premier of South Australia – John Jenkins
- Premier of Queensland – Arthur Morgan
- Premier of Tasmania – William Propsting (until 12 July), then John Evans
- Premier of Western Australia – Walter James (until 10 August), then Henry Daglish
- Premier of Victoria – William Irvine (until 16 February), then Sir Thomas Bent
- Governor of New South Wales – Sir Harry Rawson
- Governor of South Australia – Sir George Ruthven Le Hunte
- Governor of Queensland – Sir Herbert Chermside (until 10 October)
- Governor of Tasmania – Captain Sir Arthur Havelock (until 16 April), then Sir Gerald Strickland (from 28 October)
- Governor of Western Australia – Admiral Sir Frederick Bedford
- Governor of Victoria – Major General Sir Reginald Talbot (from 25 April)
- 6 January – The Tasmanian government replaces the state's Central Board of Health with a Public Health Department.
- 13 January – The flag of South Australia is officially gazetted as the current design.
- 23 January – A by-election is held for the New South Wales Legislative Assembly seat of Ryde. It is won by Edward Terry for the Liberal Reform Party.
- 29 February – Women's suffrage is granted in Tasmania.
- 1 June – A general election is held in Victoria. Incumbent premier Sir Thomas Bent is returned with an increased majority.
- 20 June – The P&O ship SS Australia is wrecked at the entrance to Port Phillip. There is no loss of life.
- 12 November – John Drayton is imprisoned under parliamentary privilege provisions in Western Australia.
- 1 December – Ipswich, Queensland is proclaimed as a city.
Arts and literature
- 12 January – Melbourne businessmann Alfred Felton leaves a large bequest to the Art Gallery of Victoria.
- Hans Heysen wins the Wynne Prize with Mystic Morn
- The Austral Hall Toowoomba was officially opened on 5 November 1904 by Sir Hugh Nelson, Lieutenant Governor of Queensland for The Austral Society.
- September – The Australasian Lawn Tennis Association is formed in Sydney.
- 1 November – Acrasia wins the Melbourne Cup.
- New South Wales wins the Sheffield Shield.
- Two Australians, Corrie Gardner and Leslie McPherson, compete in athletics at the 1904 Summer Olympics. They do not return with any medals
- 7 April – Roland Wilson, economist
- 8 April – John Antill, musician and composer (died 1986)
- 29 May – Hubert Opperman, cyclist and politician (died 1996)
- 8 January – Alfred Felton (born 1831), entrepreneur and philanthropist
- 25 January – Graham Berry (born 1822), Premier of Victoria
- 2 February – Edward Braddon (born 1829), Premier of Tasmania
- 5 August – George Dibbs (born 1834), Premier of New South Wales
- 17 December – William Shiels (born 1848), Premier of Victoria