1914 Atlantic hurricane season
|Season summary map|
|First system formed||September 15, 1914|
|Last system dissipated||October 26, 1914|
|Strongest storm||One (by default) – 995 mbar (hPa) (29.39 inHg), 70 mph (110 km/h)|
|Total storms||1 (record low)|
|Atlantic hurricane seasons
1912, 1913, 1914, 1915, 1916
The 1914 Atlantic hurricane season was the least active Atlantic hurricane season on record, with only one known tropical storm. Although hurricane season typically encompasses a much larger time-span, actual activity was confined to the middle of September. The only tropical cyclone of the year developed in the region of The Bahamas on September 15 and drifted northwestward, moving inland over Florida and Georgia. Thorough warnings before the storm prevented any major damage. The 1914 season is one of only two that did not produce any hurricanes (the other being the 1907 season). Due to the lack of modern technology, including satellite imagery, information is often sparse, and an additional tropical depression may have existed in late October.
With only one official tropical cyclone, the 1914 season was the least active Atlantic hurricane season on record. It is one of only two Atlantic season without a storm of hurricane intensity (winds of 75 mph (121 km/h) or stronger), the other being the 1907 season. The sole tropical storm's formation on September 14 represents the latest start to a hurricane season since officials records began in 1851.
Information on the 1914 season is chiefly based on data from the Atlantic hurricane database (HURDAT), which underwent a thorough reanalysis of hurricanes from 1911 through 1914 in 2005. Several changes, mostly of a minor nature, were made to the September tropical storm. Additionally, two other systems during the year were formally considered for inclusion into the hurricane database, one of which was deemed a possible tropical depression, but too weak to be classified a tropical storm. The other was assessed as a non-tropical system. The 2005 HURDAT reanalysis relied largely on historical weather maps and ship reports in place of modern technology, including satellite imagery. Since tropical cyclones in the Atlantic were not officially named until 1950, they are listed by their chronological number in older seasons.
Tropical Storm One
|Tropical storm (SSHS)|
|Duration||September 15 – September 19|
|Peak intensity||70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min) <995 mbar (hPa)|
The first and only tropical storm of the season originated in a tropical wave, as indicated by weather maps from September 13. The Atlantic hurricane database initially listed the system as a tropical cyclone by September 14, although the 2005 reanalysis concluded that a closed low pressure system had not yet developed. Maps from September 15 display a weak low north of The Bahamas; however, other observations place the new cyclone further south. Decreases in air pressure occurred throughout the islands, providing "strong indications of a disturbance". The system is officially estimated to have become a tropical depression at 0000 UTC on September 15, approximately 200 mi (320 km) east of Miami, Florida. It became a tropical storm about 12 hours later, leading to the issuance of storm warnings from the east coast of Florida to as far north as Hatteras, North Carolina.
Gradually intensifying, the tropical cyclone drifted northwest. By September 16 the storm had deepened to 995 millibars (29.4 inHg) according to weather maps, contrasting with other data portraying a much weaker storm. It was situated south of the Georgia coast later that day. While most tropical systems in the vicinity tend to continue northward along the Eastern Seaboard, the cyclone curved westward and moved ashore near the Florida–Georgia state border after achieving a peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 70 mph (110 km/h). It progressed inland over southern Georgia as it quickly weakened, and its intensity leveled off after around 1800 UTC on September 17. It skirted the northern Gulf of Mexico as it swerved slightly south of its westward path, and weakened to a tropical depression over southeastern Louisiana. By early September 19, the depression had further disintegrated into an open trough — a poorly defined, elongated area of low pressure.
The storm produced widespread rainfall in the Southeastern United States, accompanied by gale-force winds along the coast. Ships reported severe conditions at sea. High tides were reported around St. Augustine, Florida, washing over the South Street Causeway. Winds from the storm dispersed large amounts of dead grass from marshes in the area. No significant damage was reported, however, due to thorough warnings before the cyclone. Aside from the date of formation, the 2005 reanalysis of the storm made only minor changes to its track and intensity records. Its peak intensity, however, was raised based on a ship report of higher winds.
In addition to the September tropical storm, a possible depression that remained below tropical storm intensity developed in late October. On October 24, a broad area of low pressure was present over the western Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. A possible center of low pressure, attached to a cold front extending southward, had formed within the larger system and moved toward the east. Another center of low pressure formed in the northwestern Caribbean on October 25 and is considered a tropical depression in contemporary research. The depression had weak winds due to the light pressure gradient in the region and, at its peak, it had a minimum central pressure of 1,004 mbar (29.6 inHg). On October 26, the cold front associated with the extratropical cyclone to the north absorbed the tropical system. The next day, the extratropical system deteriorated into an open trough. Although the tropical low was reviewed for inclusion into the hurricane database as a tropical storm in 2005, it was deemed too weak.
- Landsea, Chris, et al (2005). "Documentation of Atlantic Tropical Cyclones Changes in HURDAT - 2005 Changes/Additions for 1911 to 1914". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Hurricane Research Division. Retrieved March 15, 2011.
- Hurricane Specialists Unit (2010). "Easy to Read HURDAT 1851–2009". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved March 15, 2011.
- Bob Fogarty (Fall 2009). "2009 Hurricane Season - Is it Over Before it Began?". National Weather Service. Retrieved March 19, 2011.
- Bowie, Edward H (September 1914). "Storms And Warnings For September" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review (American Meteorological Society) 42 (9): 540. Bibcode:1914MWRv...42..540B. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1914)42<540:SAWFS>2.0.CO;2. Retrieved March 15, 2011.
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