1914 Star

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1914 Star
1914 Star.jpg
Awarded by the Monarch of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India
Country Flag of the United Kingdom (2-3).svg United Kingdom
Type Campaign medal
Eligibility British forces
Awarded for Campaign service
Campaign France and Belgium 1914
Clasps 5th AUG.–22nd NOV. 1914
Statistics
Established April 1917
Total awarded 365,622
Order of wear
Next (higher) India General Service Medal (1909)
Next (lower) 1914–15 Star
Related 1914–15 Star
British War Medal
Victory Medal
Territorial Force War Medal
Ribbon - 1914 Star.png Ribbon - 1914 Star & Rosette.png
Ribbon bar without and with rosette

The 1914 Star, colloquially known as the Mons Star, is a British World War I campaign medal for service in France or Belgium between 5 August and 22 November 1914.

Institution[edit]

The 1914 Star was authorised under Special Army Order no. 350 in November 1917 and by an Admiralty Fleet Order in 1918, for award to officers and men of the British and Indian Expeditionary Forces who served in France or Belgium between 5 August and midnight of 22–23 November 1914.[1][2] The former date is the day after Britain's declaration of war against the Central Powers, and the closing date marks the end of the First Battle of Ypres.

Clasp[edit]

A clasp was instituted in 1919, as published in Army Order no. 361 of 16 October 1919. The clasp, together with two small silver roses, was awarded to those who had served under fire or who had operated within range of enemy mobile artillery in France or Belgium during the period between 5 August and 22 November 1914. Altogether 365,622 medals were awarded, but the exact number of 1914 Stars awarded with a clasp is unknown since the clasp had to be claimed personally by the recipients, of whom a large number had either died before 1919 or neglected to apply. Approximately 145,000 clasps were awarded.[2][3][4]

When the ribbon bar alone was worn, recipients of the clasp to the medal wore a small silver rosette button on the ribbon bar.[2]

Recipients[edit]

The 1914 Star was principally an Army award, although some Royal Navy personnel also qualified, having served ashore at Antwerp during the qualifying period. A few women who served in France and Belgium as nurses or auxiliaries during the qualifying period were also awarded the medal.[5]

The majority of recipients were officers and men of the pre-war British army, specifically the British Expeditionary Force, also known as the Old Contemptibles, who landed in France soon after the outbreak of the War and who took part in the Retreat from Mons, hence the medal's nickname "Mons Star".[6]

One hundred and sixty medals were awarded to members of the 2nd Canadian Stationary Hospital who served with the British Expeditionary Force, beginning on 6 November 1914. In addition a few Canadians who were attached to British units also received the medal.[3]

The 1914 Star was never awarded singly. Recipients of this medal also received the British War Medal and Victory Medal, but did not qualify to also receive the very similar 1914–15 Star since no person could receive both Stars. These three medals, with either Star included, were sometimes irreverently referred to as "Pip, Squeak and Wilfred", after three comic strip characters, a dog, a penguin and a rabbit, that were popular in the immediate post-war era.[2][7][8]

Order of wear[edit]

Campaign Medals and Stars are not listed by name in the order of wear prescribed by the British Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood, but are all grouped together as taking precedence after the Queen's Medal for Chiefs and before the Polar Medals, in order of the date of the campaign for which awarded.[9]

The 1914 Star takes precedence after the India General Service Medal (1909). The order of wear of the First World War campaign stars and medals is as follows:[9]

Description[edit]

The medal is a four-pointed star of bright bronze, ensigned with a crown, with a height of 50 millimetres (62 millimetres with the ring suspension included) and a width of 44 millimetres. The medal and suspension assembly was struck in one piece.[5]

Obverse

The obverse has two crossed gladii (swords) with their blades upwards, the points and hilts of which form what might appear to be four additional points to the star. The swords are overlaid by a wreath of oak leaves, with the Royal Cypher of George V at the base of the wreath and a central S-shaped scroll inscribed "AUG 1914 NOV".[2][5]

Reverse

The reverse is plain and is impressed with the recipient's number, rank, name and regiment or unit.[2][5]

Clasp
Clasp - 1914 Star.png

The clasp, inscribed "5th AUG.–22nd NOV. 1914", was struck in bronze and is 31 millimetres wide and 5 millimetres high, while the ribbon bar rosettes are in silver. The clasp was sewn onto the ribbon.[2][4][5]

Ribbon

The ribbon is 32 millimetres wide and has the red, white and blue colours of the flag of the United Kingdom in shaded and watered bands. The same ribbon was used for the 1914–15 Star.[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Duffy, Michael. "1914 Star". www.firstworldwar.com. Retrieved 20 May 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Award – 1914 Star £12.50
  3. ^ a b Veterans Affairs Canada – 1914 Star (Accessed on 28 March 2015)
  4. ^ a b NortheastMedals - The Bar or Clasp for the 1914 Star (Accessed on 31 March 2015)
  5. ^ a b c d e f "The King's Own Royal Regiment Museum, (Lancaster), 1914 Star". www.kingsownmuseum.plus.com. Retrieved 25 March 2015. 
  6. ^ British Battles and Medals, p236
  7. ^ "Pip, Squeak and Wilfred". First World War.com. Archived from the original on 11 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-26. 
  8. ^ "Pip, Squeak and Wilfred". The Long, Long Trail. Archived from the original on 2008-02-27. Retrieved 2008-06-26. 
  9. ^ a b The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 56878. p. 3352. 17 March 2003.