From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Centuries:||19th century – 20th century – 21st century|
|Decades:||1880s 1890s 1900s – 1910s – 1920s 1930s 1940s|
|Years:||1912 1913 1914 – 1915 – 1916 1917 1918|
|1915 by topic:|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Works and introductions categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2668|
|British Regnal year||4 Geo. 5 – 5 Geo. 5|
|Chinese calendar||甲寅年 (Wood Tiger)
4611 or 4551
— to —
乙卯年 (Wood Rabbit)
4612 or 4552
|- Vikram Samvat||1971–1972|
|- Shaka Samvat||1837–1838|
|- Kali Yuga||5016–5017|
|Japanese calendar||Taishō 4
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 13 days|
|Minguo calendar||ROC 4
|Thai solar calendar||2458|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1915.|
Below, the events of World War I have the "WWI" prefix.
- January 1
- WWI: The Royal Navy battleship HMS Formidable is sunk off Lyme Regis, Dorset, England, by an Imperial German Navy U-boat with the loss of 547 crew.
- The Battle of Broken Hill, a train ambush near Broken Hill, New South Wales, in Australia, is carried out by two men (claiming to be in support of the Ottoman Empire) who are killed together with 4 civilians.
- Harry Houdini performs a straitjacket escape performance.
- January 5 – Joseph E. Carberry sets an altitude record of 11,690 feet (3,560 m), carrying Capt. Benjamin Delahauf Foulois as a passenger in a fixed-wing aircraft.
- January 12 – The United States House of Representatives rejects a proposal to give women the right to vote.
- January 13 – An earthquake in Avezzano, Italy, registering 6.8 on the Richter scale kills more than 29,000.
- January 18 – Twenty-One Demands from Japan to China are made.
- January 19
- January 21 – Kiwanis is founded in Detroit, as The Supreme Lodge Benevolent Order Brothers.
- January 24 – WW I: Battle of Dogger Bank: British Grand Fleet defeats the German High Seas Fleet, sinking the armoured cruiser SMS Blücher.
- January 25
- First United States coast-to-coast long-distance telephone call, facilitated by a newly invented vacuum tube amplifier, ceremonially inaugurated by Alexander Graham Bell in New York City and his former assistant Thomas A. Watson, in San Francisco, California.
- Emory College is rechartered as Emory University, and plans to move its main campus from Oxford, Georgia to Atlanta.
- January 26 – The Rocky Mountain National Park is established by an act of the United States Congress.
- January 26 – WWI: Ottoman Army begins Raid on Suez Canal
- January 27 – WWI: Military casualties begin arriving at the Hôpital Temporaire d'Arc-en-Barrois, established earlier in the month.
- January 28 – An act of the United States Congress designates the United States Coast Guard, begun in 1790, as a military branch.
- January 31 – WWI: Germany's first large-scale use of poison gas as a weapon occurs when 18,000 artillery shells containing liquid xylyl bromide tear gas are fired on the Imperial Russian Army on the Rawka River west of Warsaw during the Battle of Bolimov; however, freezing temperatures prevent it being effective.
- February – While working as a cook at New York's Sloane Hospital for Women under an assumed name, "Typhoid Mary" (an asymptomatic carrier of typhoid fever) infects 25 people, and is placed in quarantine for life on March 27.
- February 8 – The controversial film, The Birth of a Nation, directed by D.W. Griffith, premieres in Los Angeles, California. It will be the highest-grossing film for around 25 years.
- February 12 – In Washington, D.C., the first stone of the Lincoln Memorial is put into place.
- February 20 – In San Francisco the Panama-Pacific International Exposition is opened.
- March – The 1915 locust plague breaks out in Palestine; it continues until October.
- March 3 – The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, the predecessor of NASA, is founded in the United States.
- March 14 – WWI:
- Battle of Más a Tierra: Off the coast of Chile, the British Royal Navy forces the Imperial German Navy light cruiser SMS Dresden (last survivor of the German East Asia Squadron) to scuttle.
- Britain, France and the Russian Empire agree to give Constantinople and the Bosporus to Russia in case of victory (the treaty is later nullified by the Bolshevik Revolution).
- March 18 – WWI: A British attack on the Dardanelles fails.
- March 19 – Pluto is photographed for the first time but is not classified as a planet.
- March 25 – The U.S. submarine F-4 sinks off Hawaii; 21 are killed.
- March 26 – The Vancouver Millionaires win the Stanley Cup over the Ottawa Senators three games to zero.
- March 28 – The first Roman Catholic Liturgy is celebrated by Archbishop John Ireland at the newly consecrated Cathedral of Saint Paul in Saint Paul, Minnesota.
- April 5 – Boxer Jess Willard, the latest "Great White Hope", defeats Jack Johnson with a 26th round knockout in sweltering heat at Havana, Cuba. Willard becomes very popular among white Americans for "bringing back the championship to the white race".
- April 11 – Charlie Chaplin's film The Tramp released.
- April 22 – WWI: Start of Second Battle of Ypres. First large scale use of poison gas on the Western Front by the Germans.
- April 24 – Beginning of the Armenian Genocide with the deportation of Armenian notables from Istanbul.
- April 25 – WWI: Start of the Gallipoli Campaign (lasting until January 1916): Landing at Anzac Cove by Australian and New Zealand Army Corps and landing at Cape Helles by British and French troops to begin the Allied invasion of the Gallipoli peninsula in the Ottoman Empire.
- April 26 – Treaty of London: Italy secretly agrees to leave the Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary and join with the Triple Entente.
- May 3 – Canadian soldier John McCrae writes the poem "In Flanders Fields".
- May 5 – WWI: Forces of the Ottoman Empire begin shelling Anzac Cove from a new position behind their lines.
- May 6 – Baseball player Babe Ruth hits his first career home run (off Jack Warhop), for the Boston Red Sox.
- May 7 – WWI: Sinking of the RMS Lusitania: British ocean liner RMS Lusitania is sunk by Imperial German Navy U-boat U-20 off the south-west coast of Ireland, killing 1,198 civilians en route from New York to Liverpool.
- May 9 – WWI: Second Battle of Artois: German and French forces fight to a standstill.
- May 17 – The last purely Liberal government in the United Kingdom ends when Prime Minister Herbert Asquith forms an all-party coalition government, the Second Asquith ministry, with effect from May 25.
- May 19 – WWI: Third attack on Anzac Cove by Ottoman forces is repelled by the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps.
- May 22
- Quintinshill rail disaster in Scotland: collision and fire kill 226, mostly troops, the largest number of fatalities in a rail accident in the United Kingdom.
- Lassen Peak, one of the Cascade Volcanoes in California, erupts, sending an ash plume 30,000 feet in the air and devastating the nearby area with pyroclastic flows and lahars. It is the last volcano to erupt in the contiguous United States until the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens.
- May 24 – WWI: Italy joins the Allies after they declare war on Austria-Hungary.
- May 25 – China agrees to the Twenty-One Demands of the Japanese.
- May 29 – Teófilo Braga becomes president of Portugal.
- June 3 – Mexican Revolution: Troops of Obregon and Villa clash at León: Obregon loses his right arm in grenade attack but Villa is decisively defeated.
- June 5 – Women's suffrage is introduced in Denmark and Iceland.
- June 9 – U.S. Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan resigns over a disagreement regarding his nation's handling of the RMS Lusitania sinking.
- June 16 – The British Women's Institute is founded.
- July – WWI: The Union of South Africa occupies German South-West Africa with assistance from Canada, the United Kingdom, the Portuguese Republic and Portuguese Angola. South Africa will occupy South-West Africa until March 1990.
- July 7 – An extremely overloaded International Railway (New York – Ontario) trolley with 157 passengers crashes near Queenston, Ontario, resulting in 15 casualties.
- July 22 – 'The Great Retreat' (2) is ordered - Russian forces pull back out of Poland (part of modern-day Russia), taking machinery and equipment with them.
- July 24 – The steamer Eastland capsizes in central Chicago, with the loss of 844 lives.
- July 28 – The United States occupation of Haiti (1915-1934) begins.
- August 5–August 23 – Hurricane Two of the 1915 Atlantic hurricane season over Galveston and New Orleans leaves 275 dead.
- August 6 – WWI: Battle of Sari Bair: The Allies mount a diversionary attack timed to coincide with a major Allied landing of reinforcements at Suvla Bay.
- August 16 – The Entente promises the Kingdom of Serbia, should victory be achieved over Austro-Hungary and its allied Central Powers, the territories of Baranja, Srem and Slavonia from the Cisleithanian part of the Dual Monarchy; Bosnia and Herzegovina; and eastern Dalmatia (from the river of Krka to Bar).
- August 17 – Jewish American Leo Frank is lynched for the alleged murder of a 13-year-old girl in Atlanta, Georgia.
- August 31 – Jimmy Lavender of the Chicago Cubs pitches a no hitter against the New York Giants.
- September 6 – The prototype military tank is first tested by the British Army.
- September 7 – Former cartoonist John B. Gruelle is given a patent for his Raggedy Ann doll.
- September 8 – WWI: A Zeppelin raid destroys No.61 Farringdon Road, London. It Is rebuilt in 1917 and called The Zeppelin Building.
- September 11 – The Pennsylvania Railroad begins electrified commuter rail service between Paoli and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, using overhead AC trolley wires for power. This type of system is later used in long-distance passenger trains between New York City, Washington, D.C., and Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.
- September 25–October 14 – WWI: Battle of Loos: British forces take the French town of Loos but with substantial casualties and are unable to press their advantage. This is the first time the British use poison gas in World War I and also their first large-scale use of 'New' or Kitchener's Army units.
- October 12 – WWI: British nurse Edith Cavell is executed by a German firing squad for helping Allied soldiers escape from Belgium.
- October 13 – Boston Red Sox beat Philadelphia Phillies, 4 games to 1 in the 12th World Series of North American Major League Baseball.
- October 15 – WWI (Serbian Campaign): Austria-Hungary invades the Kingdom of Serbia. Bulgaria enters the war, also invading Serbia. The Serbian First Army retreats towards Greece.
- October 16 – WWI: France declares war on Bulgaria.
- October 19
- October 23 – WWI: Torpedoing of the armored cruiser SMS Prinz Adalbert (1901) results in only three men being rescued from a crew of 675, the greatest single loss of life for the German Imperial Navy in the Baltic Sea during the War.
- October 25 – Lyda Conley, the first American Indian woman to appear before the Supreme Court of the United States as a lawyer, is admitted to practice there.
- October 27 – William Morris "Billy" Hughes becomes the 7th Prime Minister of Australia.
- October 28 – St. Johns School fire: Fire at St. John's School in Peabody, Massachusetts, claims the lives of 21 girls between the ages of 7 and 17.
- October – Franz Kafka's novella The Metamorphosis ("Die Verwandlung") is first published in Germany.
- November 18 – Release of the U.S. silent film Inspiration, the first mainstream movie in which a leading actress (Audrey Munson) appears nude.
- November 23 – The Triangle Film Corporation opens its new motion picture theater in Massillon, Ohio.
- November 24 – William J. Simmons revives the Civil War era Ku Klux Klan at Stone Mountain, Georgia.
- November 25 – Einstein's theory of general relativity is formulated.
- December 10 – The 1 millionth Ford car rolls off the assembly line at the River Rouge Plant in Detroit.
- December 12 – President of the Republic of China Yuan Shikai declares himself Emperor.
- December 18 – President of the United States Woodrow Wilson marries Mrs Edith B. Galt in Washington, D.C.
- December 23 – HMHS Britannic, which will be the largest individual British loss in WWI, departs Liverpool on her maiden voyage as a hospital ship.
- December 25 – WWI: British and German forces declare an unofficial Christmas truce, get out of the trenches and have a free-for-all kick-around football game in no man's land.
- December 26 – The Irish Republican Brotherhood Military Council decides to stage an Easter Rising in 1916.
- Alfred Wegener publishes his theory of Pangaea.
- The first stop sign appears in Detroit, Michigan.
- Ancient Mystical Order Rosae Crucis is founded.
- January 2 – John Hope Franklin, American historian (d. 2009)
- January 3
- January 4 – Meg Mundy, English-born American actress
- January 5 – Arthur H. Robinson, American geographer and cartographer (d. 2004)
- January 6 – Don Edwards, American politician
- January 7 – Helen Mussallem, Canadian nursing administrator (d. 2012)
- January 9 – Anita Louise, American actress (d. 1970)
- January 11 – Robert Blair Mayne, British soldier and co-founder of the Special Air Service (d. 1955)
- January 14 – Mark Goodson, American television game show producer (d. 1992)
- January 15 – Leo Mol, Ukrainian Canadian artist and sculptor (d. 2009)
- January 16 – Leslie H. Martinson, American television and film director
- January 18 – Santiago Carrillo, Spanish politician (d. 2012)
- January 20 – Ghulam Ishaq Khan, President of Pakistan (d. 2006)
- January 23 – Arthur Lewis, British economist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1991)
- January 24 – Robert Motherwell, American painter (d. 1991)
- January 28 – Nien Cheng, Chinese-born American writer (d. 2009)
- January 29 – John Serry, Sr., American musician, composer, arranger (d. 2003)
- January 30
- January 31
- February 1
- February 2 – Khushwant Singh, Indian writer (d. 2014)
- February 4 – Sir Norman Wisdom, English comedian, singer, and actor (d. 2010)
- February 5 – Robert Hofstadter, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1990)
- February 7 – Teoctist Arăpaşu, Ex-Romanian Orthodox Church Patriarch (d. 2007)
- February 10 – Karl Winsch, American professional baseball player and manager (d. 2001)
- February 11 – Patrick Leigh Fermor, British author and soldier (d. 2011)
- February 12 – Richard G. Colbert, American admiral (d. 1973)
- February 14 – Ray Evans, American composer (d. 2007)
- February 16
- February 19 – John Freeman, British politician
- February 20 – Danuta Szaflarska Polish screen and stage actress
- February 21 – Ann Sheridan American film actress (d. 1967)
- February 23 – Paul Tibbets, American WWII bomber pilot (Enola Gay) (d. 2007)
- February 26 – Preacher Roe, American baseball player (d. 2008)
- February 28
- March 4
- March 6 – Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin, Leader of the Dawoodi Bohra Community (d. 2014)
- March 9 – John Edgar "Johnnie" Johnson, English pilot (d. 2001)
- March 10 – Harry Bertoia, Italian artist and designer (d. 1978)
- March 11 – Vijay Hazare, Indian cricketer (d. 2004)
- March 14 – Alexander Brott, Canadian conductor and composer (d. 2005)
- March 17 – Bill Roycroft, Australian equestrian (d. 2011)
- March 19 – Patricia Morison, American actress
- March 20
- March 23 – Vasily Zaitsev, Soviet sniper (d. 1991)
- March 27 – Robert Lockwood Jr., American musician (d. 2006)
- March 30
- March 31 – Albert Hourani, English historian (d. 1993)
- April 3
- April 4 – Muddy Waters, African-American musician (d. 1983)
- April 7
- April 8 – Ivan Supek, Croatian physicist, author, and human rights activist (d. 2007)
- April 10
- April 12 – Július Tomin, Czech writer known for promoting Interlingua (d. 2003)
- April 15 – Elizabeth Catlett, American-born artist (d. 2012)
- April 21 – Anthony Quinn, Mexican actor (d. 2001)
- April 29 – Donald Mills, lead tenor of The Mills Brothers (d. 1999)
- April 30 – Elio Toaff, Italian rabbi
- May 1 – Archie Williams, American athlete (d. 1993)
- May 2 – Doris Fisher, American singer and songwriter (d. 2003)
- May 3 – Stu Hart, Canadian wrestling trainer (d. 2003)
- May 5 – Alice Faye, American entertainer (d. 1998)
- May 6 – Orson Welles, American actor and director (d. 1985)
- May 8 – Milton Meltzer, American author (d. 2009)
- May 10 – Sir Denis Thatcher, British businessman, husband of UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher (d. 2003)
- May 12 – Frère Roger, Swiss founder of the Taizé Community (d. 2005)
- May 15
- May 19 – Renée Asherson, British actress
- May 20 – Moshe Dayan, Israeli military leader and politician (d. 1981)
- May 26 – Sam Edwards, American actor (d. 2004)
- May 27
- May 29 – Karl Münchinger, German conductor (d. 1990)
- June 1 – John Randolph, American actor (d. 2004)
- June 2 – Tapio Wirkkala, Finnish designer (d. 1985)
- June 4 – Modibo Keïta, former President of Mali (d. 1977)
- June 9 – Les Paul, American inventor and musician (d. 2009)
- June 10
- June 12 – David Rockefeller, American banker and philanthropist
- June 15
- June 17
- June 24 – Sir Fred Hoyle, British astronomer (d. 2001)
- June 26
- June 28 – David Honeyboy Edwards, American musician (d. 2011)
- July 2 – Arthur Wellesley, 8th Duke of Wellington
- July 5 – John Woodruff, American athlete (d. 2007)
- July 7 – Margaret Walker, American poet (d. 1998)
- July 15 – Albert Ghiorso, American nuclear scientist (d. 2010)
- July 17 – Fred Ball, American movie studio executive, actor, and the brother of comedienne Lucille Ball (d. 2007)
- July 24 – Enrique Fernando, Chief Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court (d. 2004)
- July 26 – Pattabhi Jois, Indian yogi (d. 2009)
- July 28
- July 28 – Dick Sprang,American comic book artist during the golden age of comics and an explorer (d. 2000)
- August 3
- August 4 – William Keene, American actor (d. 1992)
- August 12 – Michael Kidd, American choreographer (d. 2007)
- August 14 – Irene Hickson, American professional baseball player (d. 1995)
- August 19 – Ring Lardner Jr., American film screenwriter (d. 2000)
- August 21 – Arnold Goodman, Baron Goodman, British lawyer and political adviser (d. 1995)
- August 22 – Hugh Paddick, British actor (d. 2000)
- August 25 – Walter Trampler, American violist (d. 1997)
- August 27 – Norman F. Ramsey, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2011)
- August 28
- August 29 – Ingrid Bergman, Swedish actress (d. 1982)
- August 30
- September 2 – Meinhardt Raabe, American actor (d. 2010)
- September 3 – Knut Nystedt, Norwegian composer
- September 8
- September 10 – Viva Leroy Nash, American murderer, oldest death row inmate (d. 2010)
- September 12 – Frank McGee, American television personality (d. 1974)
- September 14
- September 15
- September 17
- September 23
- September 29 – Vincent DeDomenico, American entrepreneur (d. 2007)
- September 30 – Lester Maddox, Governor of Georgia (d. 2003)
- October 1 – T. Llew Jones, Welsh author and poet (d. 2009)
- October 13 – Terry Frost, English artist (d. 2003)
- October 14 – Loris Francesco Capovilla, Italian Roman Catholic prelate
- October 15
- October 17 – Arthur Miller, American playwright (d. 2005)
- October 19 – Farid al-Atrash, Arab composer, singer, and actor (d. 1974)
- October 23 – Shin Hyun-joon, South Korean general (d. 2007)
- October 24
- October 28 – Dody Goodman, American actress and dancer (d. 2008)
- October 29 – William Berenberg, American physician (d. 2005)
- October 30 – Jane Randolph, American actress (d. 2009)
- November 1 – Marion Eugene Carl, U.S. Marine Corps World War II fighter ace and test pilot (d. 1998)
- November 4 – Wee Kim Wee, 4th president of Singapore (d. 2005)
- November 9
- November 11 – William Proxmire, U.S. Senator (d. 2005)
- November 12 – Roland Barthes, French philosopher and literary critic (d. 1980)
- November 17 – David "Stringbean" Akeman, American country music banjo player (d. 1973)
- November 19 – Earl Wilbur Sutherland Jr., American physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1974)
- November 23 – John Dehner, American actor (d. 1992)
- November 25
- November 28 – Evald Okas, Estonian painter (d. 2011)
- November 29 – Eugene Polley, American engineer (d. 2012)
- November 30 – Brownie McGhee, American musician (d. 1996)
- November 30 – Henry Taube, Canadian-born chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2005)
- December 2 – Marais Viljoen, former President of South Africa (d. 2007)
- December 4 – Virginia deGravelles, Louisiana actress
- December 7 – Eli Wallach, American actor
- December 8 – Ernest Lehman, American screenwriter (d. 2005)
- December 9 – Elisabeth Schwarzkopf, German-born soprano (d. 2006)
- December 12 – Frank Sinatra, American entertainer (d. 1998)
- December 13 – Ross Macdonald, American-Canadian writer (d. 1983)
- December 17 – Robert A. Dahl, American political scientist (d. 2014)
- December 19 – Édith Piaf, French singer (d. 1963)
- December 21 – Werner von Trapp, member of the Trapp Family Singers (d. 2007)
- December 22 – Barbara Billingsley, American actress (d. 2010)
- December 27 – Gyula Zsengellér, Hungarian footballer (d. 1999)
- January 13 – Mary Slessor, Scottish Christian missionary (b. 1848)
- January 14 – Richard Meux Benson, English founder of an Anglican religious order (b. 1824)
- January 23 – Anne Whitney American sculptor and poet (b. 1821)
- February 3 (executed for their part in the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria):
- February 5 – Ross Barnes, American baseball player (b. 1850)
- February 18 – Frank James American outlaw (b. 1843)
- March 4 – William Willett, English promoter of daylight saving time (b. 1856)
- March 15 – George Llewelyn Davies, English soldier, inspiration for the "Lost Boys" of Peter Pan (b. 1893) (killed in action)
- March 31 – Wyndham Halswelle, Scottish runner (killed in action) (b. 1882)
- April 16 – Nelson W. Aldrich, U.S. Senator from Rhode Island (b. 1841)
- April 23
- April 27
- May 7
- May 9
- May 24 – Private John Condon, youngest British soldier to die during the First World War (b. c. 1901)
- May 26 – Julian Grenfell, poet (killed in action) (b. 1888)
- May 31 – Victor Child Villiers, 7th Earl of Jersey, 18th Governor of New South Wales (b. 1845)
- June 7 – Charles Reed Bishop, preeminent businessman and philanthropist in Hawaii (b. 1822)
- June 19 – Benjamin F. Isherwood, American admiral and United States Navy Engineer-in-Chief (b. 1822)
- June 25 – Tok Janggut, Malayan rebel leader (b. 1853) (killed in battle)
- July 2 – Porfirio Díaz, former President of Mexico (b. 1830)
- July 16 – Ellen G. White, American prophetess, co-founder of Seventh-Day Adventism, most translated American author (b. 1827)
- August 20
- August 26 – John Bunny American silent film comedian (b. 1863)
- August 31 – Adolphe Pégoud, French acrobatic pilot and World War I fighter ace (b. 1889)
- September 9 – Albert Spalding, baseball player and sporting goods manufacturer (b. 1850)
- September 11 – William Sprague IV, America politician from Rhode Island (b. 1830)
- September 13 – Andrew L. Harris, American Civil War hero and Governor of Ohio (b. 1835)
- September 26 – Keir Hardie, British labour leader (b. 1856)
- September 27 – Fergus Bowes-Lyon, brother of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother (killed in battle) (b. 1889)
- October 12 – Edith Cavell, nurse and war heroine (shot) (b. 1865)
- October 13 – Charles Sorley, British poet (killed in action) (b. 1895)
- October 23 – W. G. Grace, English cricketer (b. 1848)
- October 26 – August Bungert, German composer and poet (b. 1845)
- October 30 – Charles Tupper, former Prime Minister of Canada (b. 1821)
- November 15 – Booker T. Washington, American educator (b. 1856)
- November 21 – Dixie Haygood, American magician (b. 1861)
- November 28 – Mubarak Al-Sabah, Emir of Kuwait (b. 1896)
- December 31 – Tommaso Salvini, Italian actor (b. 1829)
- Chemistry – Richard Willstätter
- Literature – Romain Rolland
- Medicine – not awarded
- Peace – not awarded
- Physics – William Henry Bragg and William Lawrence Bragg
- "The Great Escape". Pawn Stars. Season 4. Episode 28. 2011-05-9. History.
- "No Jacket Can Hold Him", Life, accessed May 9, 2011.
- Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
- Heller, Charles E. (September 1984). "Chemical Warfare in World War I: The American Experience, 1917-1918". Leaveanworth Papers, 10. Combat Studies Institute. Retrieved 2012-08-24.
- “Washington, Oct. 25.” The New York Times, 26 October 1915.
- In Die Weißen Blätter.