1923 Great Kantō earthquake
|Date||September 1, 1923|
The Great Kantō earthquake (関東大震災 Kantō daishinsai?) struck the Kantō Plain on the Japanese main island of Honshū at 11:58:44 a.m. JST (2:58:44 UTC) on Saturday, September 1, 1923. Varied accounts indicate the duration of the earthquake was between four and 10 minutes. The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake later surpassed its predecessor with a magnitude of 9.0.
The earthquake had a magnitude of 7.9 on the moment magnitude scale (Mw), with its focus deep beneath Izu Ōshima Island in the Sagami Bay. The cause was a rupture of part of the convergent boundary where the Philippine Sea Plate is subducting beneath the Okhotsk Plate along the line of the Sagami Trough.
This earthquake devastated Tokyo, the port city of Yokohama, and the surrounding prefectures of Chiba, Kanagawa, and Shizuoka, and caused widespread damage throughout the Kantō region. Its force was so great in Kamakura, over 60 km (37 mi) from the epicenter, it moved the Great Buddha statue, which weighs about 93 short tons (84,000 kg), almost two feet.
Estimated casualties totaled about 142,800 deaths, including about 40,000 who went missing and were presumed dead. The damage from this natural disaster was the greatest sustained by prewar Japan. In 1960, the government declared September 1, the anniversary of the quake, as an annual "Disaster Prevention Day".
Damage and deaths
Because the earthquake struck at lunchtime when many people were cooking meals over fire, many people died as a result of the many large fires that broke out. Some fires developed into firestorms that swept across cities. Many people died when their feet became stuck on melting tarmac. The single greatest loss of life was caused by a fire tornado that engulfed the Rikugun Honjo Hifukusho (formerly the Army Clothing Depot) in downtown Tokyo, where about 38,000 people were incinerated after taking shelter there following the earthquake. The earthquake broke water mains all over the city, and putting out the fires took nearly two full days until late in the morning of September 3. An estimated 6,400 people were killed and 381,000 houses were destroyed by the fire alone.
Many homes were buried or swept away by landslides in the mountainous and hilly coastal areas in western Kanagawa Prefecture, killing about 800 people. A collapsing mountainside in the village of Nebukawa, west of Odawara, pushed the entire village and a passenger train carrying over 100 passengers, along with the railway station, into the sea.
A tsunami with waves up to 10 m (33 ft) high struck the coast of Sagami Bay, Bōsō Peninsula, Izu Islands, and the east coast of Izu Peninsula within minutes. The tsunami killed many, including about 100 people along Yui-ga-hama Beach in Kamakura and an estimated 50 people on the Enoshima causeway. Over 570,000 homes were destroyed, leaving an estimated 1.9 million homeless. Evacuees were transported by ship from Kanto to as far as Kobe in Kansai. The damage is estimated to have exceeded US$1 billion (or about $14 billion today). There were 57 aftershocks.
The Home Ministry declared martial law, and ordered all sectional police chiefs to make maintenance of order and security a top priority. A false rumor was spread that Koreans were taking advantage of the disaster, committing arson and robbery, and were in possession of bombs. Anti-Korean sentiment was heightened by fear of the Korean independence movement, partisans of which were responsible for assassinations of top Japanese officials and other activities. In the confusion after the quake, mass murder of Koreans by mobs occurred in urban Tokyo and Yokohama, fueled by rumors of rebellion and sabotage. The government reported 231 Koreans were killed by mobs in Tokyo and Yokohama in the first week of September. Independent reports said the number killed was far higher, ranging from 6,000 to 10,000. Some newspapers reported the rumors as fact, including the allegation that Koreans were poisoning wells. The numerous fires and cloudy well water, a little-known effect of a large quake, all seemed to confirm the rumors of the panic-stricken survivors who were living amidst the rubble. Vigilante groups set up roadblocks in cities, and tested residents with a shibboleth for supposedly Korean-accented Japanese: deporting, beating, or killing those who failed. Army and police personnel colluded in the vigilante killings in some areas. Of the 3,000 Koreans taken into custody at the Army Cavalry Regiment base in Narashino, Chiba Prefecture, 10% were killed at the base, or after being released into nearby villages. Moreover, anyone mistakenly identified as Korean, such as Chinese, Okinawans, and Japanese speakers of some regional dialects, suffered the same fate. About 700 Chinese, mostly from Wenzhou, were killed. A monument commemorating this was built in 1993 in Wenzhou.
In response, the government called upon the Japanese Army and the police to protect Koreans; 23,715 Koreans were placed in protective custody across Japan, 12,000 in Tokyo alone. The chief of police of Tsurumi (or Kawasaki by some accounts) is reported to have publicly drunk the well water to disprove the rumor that Koreans had been poisoning wells. In some towns, even police stations into which Korean people had escaped were attacked by mobs, whereas in other neighbourhoods, residents took steps to protect them. The Army distributed flyers denying the rumor and warning civilians against attacking Koreans, but in many cases vigilante activity only ceased as a result of Army operations against it. In several documented cases, soldiers and policemen participated in the killings, and in other cases authorities handed groups of Koreans over to local vigilantes, who proceeded to kill them.
Amidst the mob violence against Koreans in the Kantō Region, regional police and the Imperial Army used the pretext of civil unrest to liquidate political dissidents. Socialists such as Hirasawa Keishichi, anarchists such as Sakae Osugi and Noe Ito, and the Chinese communal leader, Ou Kiten, were abducted and killed by local police and Imperial Army, who claimed the radicals intended to use the crisis as an opportunity to overthrow the Japanese government.
Director Chongkong Oh made two documentary films about the pogrom: Hidden Scars: The Massacre of Koreans from the Arakawa River Bank to Shitamachi in Tokyo (1983) and The Disposed-of Koreans: The Great Kanto Earthquake and Camp Narashino (1986). They largely consist of interviews with victims, witnesses and perpetrators.
The importance of obtaining and providing accurate information following natural disasters has been emphasized in Japan ever since. Earthquake preparation literature in modern Japan almost always directs citizens to carry a portable radio and use it to listen to reliable information, and not to be misled by rumors in the event of a large earthquake.
Following the devastation of the earthquake, some in the government considered the possibility of moving the capital elsewhere. Proposed sites for the new capital were even discussed.
Japanese commentators interpreted the disaster as an act of divine punishment to admonish the Japanese people for their self-centered, immoral, and extravagant lifestyles. In the long run, the response to the disaster was a strong sense that Japan had been given an unparalleled opportunity to rebuild the city, and to rebuild Japanese values. In reconstructing the city, the nation, and the Japanese people, the earthquake fostered a culture of catastrophe and reconstruction that amplified discourses of moral degeneracy and national renovation in interwar Japan.
After the earthquake, Gotō Shinpei organized a reconstruction plan of Tokyo with modern networks of roads, trains, and public services. Parks were placed all over Tokyo as refuge spots, and public buildings were constructed with stricter standards than private buildings to accommodate refugees. However, the outbreak of World War II and subsequent destruction severely limited resources.
Frank Lloyd Wright received credit for designing the Imperial Hotel, Tokyo, to withstand the quake, although in fact the building was damaged by the shock. The destruction of the US embassy caused Ambassador Cyrus Woods to relocate the embassy to the hotel. Wright's structure withstood the anticipated earthquake stresses, and the hotel remained in use until 1968.
The unfinished battlecruiser Amagi was in drydock being converted into an aircraft carrier in Yokosuka in compliance with the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922. However, the earthquake damaged the Amagi beyond repair, leading it to be scrapped, and the unfinished fast battleship Kaga was converted into an aircraft carrier in its place.
In contrast to London, where typhoid fever had been steadily declining since the 1870s, the rate in Tokyo remained high, more so in the upper-class residential northern and western districts than in the densely populated working-class eastern district. An explanation is the decline of waste disposal, which became particularly serious in the northern and western districts when traditional methods of waste disposal collapsed due to urbanization. The 1923 earthquake led to record-high morbidity due to unsanitary conditions following the earthquake, and it prompted the establishment of antityphoid measures and the building of urban infrastructure.
The Honda Point Disaster on the United States west coast, in which seven US Navy destroyers ran aground and 23 lives were lost, has been attributed to navigational errors caused by unusual currents set up by the earthquake in Japan.
Beginning in 1960, every September 1 is designated as Disaster Prevention Day to commemorate the earthquake and remind people of the importance of preparation, as September and October are the middle of the typhoon season. Schools and public and private organizations host disaster drills. Tokyo is located near a fault zone beneath the Izu Peninsula which, on average, causes a major earthquake about once every 70 years, and is also located near the Sagami Trough, a large subduction zone that has potential for large earthquakes. Every year on this date, schools across Japan take a moment of silence at the precise time the earthquake hit in memory of the lives lost.
Some discreet memorials are located in Yokoamicho Park in Sumida Ward, at the site of the open space in which an estimated 38,000 people were killed by a single fire tornado. The park houses a Buddhist-style memorial hall/museum, a memorial bell donated by Taiwanese Buddhists, a memorial to the victims of World War II Tokyo air raids, and a memorial to the Korean victims of the vigilante killings.
In Japan Sinks, in one scene in the book, due to the fast-moving subduction of the Pacific and Eurasian plates, the Sagami Trough ruptures in a magnitude-8.5 earthquake, killing several million people in Tokyo and other areas, causing major tsunamis, and creating major firestorms. In the film adaptation of Japan Sinks, Nihon Chinbotsu, the Sagami Trough ruptures in a massive earthquake called "The Second Great Kanto Earthquake". In the manga (comic) adaptation of Japan Sinks, the Second Kanto Earthquake killed over five million.
In Oswald Wynd's novel The Ginger Tree, Mary Mackenzie survives the earthquake, and later bases her clothes designing company in one of the few buildings that remained standing in the aftermath.
In Tokyo Magnitude 8.0, the Sagami Trough ruptures in a magnitude-8.0 earthquake, killing over 200,000 in Tokyo, causing floods and fires, and putting the main character at risk.
Waki Yamato's manga Haikara-san ga Tōru actually reaches its climax after the Great Kanto earthquake—which happens right before the wedding of the female lead, Benio Hanamura, and her second love Tousei. Benio barely survives when the Christian church she's getting married in collapses, and then she finds her long-lost love Shinobu whose other love interest Larissa is among the victims; they get back together, and Tousei allows them to.
The josei manga and anime Kasei Yakyoku (by author Makiko Hirata) also finishes few after the earthquake, as a corollary to the main love triangle between the noblewoman Akiko Hashou, her lover Taka Itou, and Akiko's maid Sara Uchida. The Hashou's big fancy house is destroyed, leading to an emotional confrontation between Akiko and her fiancè Kiyosu Saionji; meanwhile, Sara's humble house in the suburbia is also destroyed and her mother dies of injuries she sustained in the earthquake.
The also josei manga Akatsuki no Aria (by Michiyo Akaishi) features the Earthquake in volume 8. Several places frequented by the protagonist Aria Kanbara, like her boarding school and the house of the rich Nishimikado clan that she is an illegitimate member of, become shelters for the wounded and the homeless. Additionally, Aria's mother is among the victims, and this triggers a subplot about Aria's own heritage.
In the 2013 animated film by director Hayao Miyazaki, The Wind Rises, the protagonist Jiro Horikoshi is traveling to Tokyo by train to study engineering. On the way, the 1923 earthquake strikes, derailing the train and causing a huge fire in the city.
- Panda, Rajaram. "Japan Coping with a National Calamity". Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA). Retrieved 21 December 2011.
- James, Charles. "The 1923 Tokyo Earthquake and Fire". University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved 21 December 2011.
- "USGS". Earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2013-02-18.
- Bakun, W.H. (2005). "Magnitude and location of historical earthquakes in Japan and implications for the 1855 Ansei Edo earthquake". Journal of Geophysical Research 110 (B02304). Bibcode:2005JGRB..11002304B. doi:10.1029/2004JB003329.
- Earthquake Pictorial Edition – Part Two, page 35, The Osaka Mainichi, 1923 (Which can be seen here .)
- "The 1923 Tokyo Earthquake". Archived from the original on 19 February 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-22.
- Thomas A. Stanley and R.T.A. Irving (2001-09-05). "The 1923 Kanto Earthquake". Archived from the original on 2007-03-04. Retrieved 2007-02-22.
- James, Charles D. (2002-10-08). "The 1923 Tokyo Earthquake and Fire" (PDF). Archived from the original on 16 March 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-22.
- Scawthorn, Eidinger, Schiff, ed. (2005). Fire Following Earthquake. Reston, VA: ASCE, NFPA. ISBN 978-0-7844-0739-4.
- "Yokohama is Practically Destroyed". The New York Times, September 3, 1923.
- "All Ships Aiding Relief". The New York Times, September 9, 1923; WNET/PBS, Savage Earth: The Restless Planet video/broadcast television program
- "朝鮮人虐殺事件" [Korean Massacre Incident]. Kokushi Daijiten (in Japanese). Tokyo: Shogakukan. 2012. OCLC 683276033. Retrieved 2012-08-11.
- Chuushichi Tsuzuki (2000). The Pursuit of Power in Modern Japan, 1825–1995. Oxford University Press. p. 216.
- Hammer 2006, pp. 149–170
- 姜徳相『新版 関東大震災・虐殺の記憶』 青丘文化社
- Neff, Robert. "The Great Kanto Earthquake Massacre". Retrieved 29 August 2013.
- Hammer 2006, pp. 167–8
- "The Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923". Library.brown.edu. Retrieved 2013-02-18.
- "日本１９２３年关东大地震 在日朝鲜人和华工为何地震后惨遭屠杀". 青年参考. 2008-05-27. Archived from the original on 2008-06-25. Retrieved 2008-06-25.
- "日本暴徒残害温州人的历史记录 ——写在"东瀛血案"八十周年". Wenzhou Daily. 2003-09-06. Archived from the original on 2014-06-08. Retrieved 2014-06-08.
- "亀戸事件" [Kameido Incident]. Kokushi Daijiten (in Japanese). Tokyo: Shogakukan. 2012. OCLC 683276033. Retrieved 2012-08-11.
- Choongkong Oh (Director) (1983). 隠された爪跡 - 東京荒川土手周辺から下町の虐殺 [Hidden Scars: The Massacre of Koreans from the Arakawa River Bank to Shitamachi in Tokyo] (Motion picture).
- Choongkong Oh (Director) (1986). 払い下げられた朝鮮人-関東大震災と習志野収容所 [The Disposed-of Koreans: The Great Kanto Earthquake and Camp Narashino] (Motion picture).
- Mikiso Hane, Reflections on the Way to the Gallows: Rebel Women in Prewar Japan, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1988, p.176 (Hane references the memoirs of Japanese socialist Tanno Setsu)
- Funabashi, Yoichi (2011-07-04). "Rebuilding Japan". Time. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
- J. Charles Schencking, "The Great Kanto Earthquake and the Culture of Catastrophe and Reconstruction in 1920s Japan", Journal of Japanese Studies (2008) 34:2 pp 295–331. online in project MUSE
- Hammer 2006, p. 176
- Takeshi Nagashima, "Sewage Disposal and Typhoid Fever: the Case of Tokyo 1912–1940". Annales De Démographie Historique (2004) 2:1 pp 105–117.
- Honda Point Disaster, 8 September 1923, Naval History and Heritage Command. Department of the Navy (USA), 2002
- "Nightsong of Splendor --- Kasei Yakyoku". Retrieved 11 December 2011.
- Borland, Janet. "Capitalising on Catastrophe: Reinvigorating the Japanese State with Moral Values through Education Following the 1923 Great Kanto- Earthquake," Modern Asian Studies (2006) 40#4 pp. 875–908
- Borland, Janet. "Stories of Ideal Subjects from the Great Kanto- Earthquake," Japanese Studies (2005) 25#1 pp. 21–34
- Clancey, Gregory. (2006). Earthquake Nation: The Cultural Politics of Japanese Seismicity. Berkeley: University of California Press. 10-ISBN 0-520-24607-1; 13-ISBN 978-0-520-24607-2 (cloth)
- Hammer, Joshua (2006), Yokohama Burning: The Deadly 1923 Earthquake and Fire that Helped Forge the Path to World War II, Simon & Schuster, ISBN 978-0-7432-6465-5
- Heilbrun, Jacob. "Aftershocks," New York Times. September 17, 2006.
- Nyst, M. and T. Nishimura,F. F. Pollitz, and W. Thatcher. (2005). "The 1923 Kanto Earthquake Re-evaluated Using a Newly Augmented Geodetic Data Set," Journal of Geophysical Research. Washington, D.C.: American Geophysical Union.
- Scawthorn, Charles, John M. Eidinger and Anshel J. Schiff. (2006). Fire Following Earthquake. Reston, Virginia: ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers) Publications. 10-ISBN 0-7844-0739-8; 13-ISBN 978-0-7844-0739-4 (cloth)
- Schencking, J. Charles. "The Great Kanto Earthquake and the Culture of Catastrophe and Reconstruction in 1920s Japan," Journal of Japanese Studies (2008) 34#2 pp 295–331. online in project MUSE
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1923 Great Kantō earthquake.|
- The Great Kantō earthquake of 1923 – Great Kanto Earthquake.com
- Great Kanto Earthquake 1923 – Photographs by August Kengelbacher
- Japan Earthquake 1923 – Pathé News
- The Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923 – Brown University Library Center for Digital Scholarship
- The Great Kanto Earthquake Massacre – OhmyNews