1925 Atlantic hurricane season

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
1925 Atlantic hurricane season
Season summary map
First system formed August 18, 1925
Last system dissipated December 1, 1925
Strongest storm One – 80 mph (130 km/h)
Total fatalities ≥59 total
Total damage At least $1.6 million (1925 USD)
Atlantic hurricane seasons
1923, 1924, 1925, 1926, 1927

The 1925 Atlantic hurricane season was an inactive Atlantic hurricane season during which four tropical cyclones formed. Only one of them was a hurricane. The first storm developed on August 18, and the last dissipated on December 1. The season began at a late date, more than two months after the season began. The official start of the season is generally considered to be June 1 with the end being October 31;[1] however, the final storm of the season formed nearly a month after the official end.[2] Due to increased activity over the following decades, the official end of the hurricane season was shifted to November 30.[1]

The final two storms of the season impacted several areas, with the final storm affecting areas from Cuba to Rhode Island. The third storm caused little or no damage along the Texas coastline with gale-force winds being recorded only along the coast. The last storm caused severe damage along the beaches of the Florida Peninsula, with damages estimated in the millions along with four fatalities near Tampa. At least $600,000 was lost in damages dealt to the citrus industry and several maritime incidents resulted in over 55 fatalities.[2]

Timeline[edit]

Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale

Storms[edit]

Hurricane One[edit]

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration August 18 – August 21
Peak intensity 80 mph (130 km/h) (1-min)  <994 mbar (hPa)

The first indications of a tropical cyclone developing were on August 17. A ship in the vicinity of the developing system reported winds of 40 mph (65 km/h) over 78 °F (25.5 °C) waters.[3] Around 0000 UTC the next day, the system was classified as a modern day tropical depression with sustained winds estimated at 30 mph (45 km/h). Roughly 18 hours later, the depression strengthened into a tropical storm, the first of the season while located to the north-northeast of the Bahamas. Gradual intensification took place throughout most of the storm's life[4] as it traveled towards the northeast[5] until becoming a hurricane around 0600 UTC on August 20.[4] About 30 minutes later, a ship recorded winds of 45 mph (75 km/h)[3] and a pressure of 993.6 mbar (hPa),[2] the lowest pressure recorded in relation to the small storm.[2][3] Shortly after, the storm reached its peak intensity with winds of 80 mph (130 km/h).[4] Increasing in forward motion, the storm became extratropical early on August 21 after turning towards the north.[4][5]

Tropical Storm Two[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration August 25 – August 27
Peak intensity 40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min)  <1009 mbar (hPa)

The second storm of the season was first identified on August 25 to the east of Florida as a tropical depression.[4] Around this time, several ships were reporting winds up to 25 mph (35 km/h) in the vicinity of the system.[6] Traveling towards the northeast, the storm gradually intensified, attainting tropical storm status around 0600 UTC the next day.[4] Several hours later, a ship recorded a pressure of 1010 mbar (hPa) while located in the vicinity of the system.[6] The storm turned towards the west-northwest later that day and forward motion began to increase.[4]

Early on August 27, the storm weakened below tropical storm status and transitioned into an extratropical cyclone[4] while moving over cooler waters.[6] The system dissipated shortly after over open waters.[4] Although the storm remained over water for the duration of its existence, the outer reaches of the system brought rain and light winds to Georgia, Florida, and the Carolinas. In Jacksonville, Florida, the storm produced 0.47 in (11.9 mm) of rain on August 25. Between August 26 and 27, Cape Hatteras received 2.06 in (52.3 mm) of rain from the storm.[6]

Tropical Storm Three[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration September 6 – September 7
Peak intensity 50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  <1002 mbar (hPa)

The third storm of the season was first identified as tropical depression off the northwestern coast of the Yucatan Peninsula early on September 6. The system moved at a steady pace to the northwest towards the Rio Grande Valley. Shortly after forming, the depression strengthened into a tropical storm.[4] At this time, a ship in the vicinity of the storm recorded a pressure of 1012 mbar (hPa).[7] By 1800 UTC that day, the storm reached its peak intensity with winds of 50 mph (85 km/h).[4] Around 9 pm CST (0300 UTC on September 7) that night, storm warnings were issued for areas between Brownsville and Corpus Christi, Texas. These warnings were later expanded to include the entire Texas coastline.[2]

The storm made landfall in northern Mexico, just south of the Texas border,[4] shortly after the warnings were extended.[2] Around the time the storm made landfall, a pressure of 1002 mbar (hPa) was recorded in Brownsville, Texas.[7] The storm dissipated later that day over southwestern Texas.[4] No known damage was caused as a result of this storm and storm-force winds were only recorded over a small area on the Texas coastline.[2] The storm produced minor rainfall over south Texas with Brownsville recording 0.56 in (14.2 mm) and Corpus Christi recording 0.95 in (24.1 in). Winds up to 43 mph (69 km/h) were reported in Brownsville around 1 am CST (0800 UTC) on September 7.[7]

Tropical Storm Four[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration November 27 – December 1
Peak intensity 65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min)  <996 mbar (hPa)

The final storm of the season formed as tropical depression to the southeast of the Yucatan Peninsula early on November 27,[4] nearly a month after the official end of the hurricane season.[1] The depression drifted towards the southeast, gradually strengthening into a tropical storm[4] over 80 °F (26.6 °C) waters. Around 1300 UTC, a ship in the vicinity of the storm recorded winds up to 40 mph (65 km/h).[8] Once in the Gulf, forward motion picked up as it intensified to winds of 65 mph (105 km/h).[9] During the night of November 30, the storm made landfall just south of Tampa, Florida; a pressure of 998.8 mbar (29.5 inHg) was recorded along with winds up to 52 mph (87 km/h).[2]

Not long after making landfall, the storm weakened and transitioned into an extratropical cyclone while over center Florida. The cyclone emerged over the eastern Atlantic Ocean several hours later and regained hurricane-force winds. By 0000 UTC, the storm reached its peak intensity as an extratropical system with winds of 90 mph (150 km/h) and a minimum pressure of 980 mbar (hPa).[4] Around this time, the U. S. S. Patoka, which was in the vicinity of the storm, recorded a pressure of 978.5 mbar (28.9 inHg).[2] The northeastward movement slowed shortly after crossing Florida.[4] At around 6 p.m. EST (2300 UTC), it made landfall between Wilmington and Cape Hatteras[2] with winds equivalent to a minimal hurricane. Shortly after landfall, maximum sustained winds in the storm dropped below 75 mph (120 km/h).[4] A strong area of high pressure located over the Canadian Maritimes caused the system to turn towards the east-southeast.[2] On December 5, the storm weakened further to the equivalent of a tropical depression as the system began to move towards the south.[4] The remnants of the storm continued towards the east, passing several hundred miles north of Bermuda later that day. Several days later, the cyclone was reported near the Azores. On December 9, it passed neat Horta where a pressure of 992.7 mbar (29.32 inHg) was recorded along with winds of 40 mph (65 km/h). After passing through the islands, it merged with another cyclone over the North Atlantic.[2]

The storm caused significant property and crop damage along the Gulf Coast of Florida. Trees, power lines, and telegraph wires were uprooted or knocked down by high winds along the Suwannee River. Structures which were previously considered to be safe from storms, being over 100 ft (30.4 m) inland, sustained significant damage from what was likely storm surge. The beaches along the Atlantic coast also sustained considerable damages from the storm.[2] Four people were killed near Tampa in two separate incidents . The first occurred when a house collapsed on three men, pinning them to the ground. The second incident occurred after a woman ran outside her home and was struck by a tree limb.[10] In North Carolina, heavy rains and strong winds were reported along the coast. Near record high water rises were recorded around Wilmington.[11] Cape Hatteras was temporarily isolated from the surrounding areas as the high winds from the storm knocked down power lines throughout the area. Several buildings along the coast and numerous boats sustained considerable damage.[12]

Throughout Florida, there were no reports of fatalities but property loses were estimated in the millions, with $1 million in Jacksonville alone. Damages to the citrus industry were also significant, with total losses exceeding $600,000. In addition to the severe impacts on land, numerous shipping incidents resulted in several deaths. A schooner carrying seven people sunk with no survivors. A tug boat sank off the coast of Mobile, Alabama while towing a lumber barge, the fate of the crew is unknown. A ship named the American S. S. Catopazi sank between Charleston, South Carolina and the northern coast of Cuba; all 30 crew members drowned. A ship carrying about 2,000 cases of liquor with a crew of six sank near Daytona Beach. The last incident, involving a yacht, occurred off the coast of Georgia. The ship sank near Savannah, Georgia with the 12 crew members drowning. The total loss of life at sea was at least 55.[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Neal Dorst (1993). "When is hurricane season ?". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 8 March 2009. Retrieved March 9, 2009. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n W. P. Day (1926). "Monthly Weather Review for 1925" (PDF). National Weather Service. Archived from the original on 25 February 2009. Retrieved March 8, 2009. 
  3. ^ a b c "Raw Observations for Hurricane One 1925". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2009. Retrieved March 20, 2009. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "Atlantic Best Tracks, 1851 to 2007 Reanalyzed". National Hurricane Center. 2009. Retrieved March 20, 2009. 
  5. ^ a b Chris Landsea (June 28, 2005). "The Atlantic Hurricane Database Reanalysis for 1911 to 1930". National Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on 25 February 2009. Retrieved March 8, 2009. 
  6. ^ a b c d "Raw Observations for Tropical Storm Two 1925". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2009. Retrieved March 20, 2009. 
  7. ^ a b c "Raw Observations for Tropical Storm Three 1925". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2009. Retrieved March 21, 2009. 
  8. ^ "Raw Observations for Hurricane Four 1925". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2009. Retrieved March 21, 2009. 
  9. ^ Hurricane Research Division (2011). "Documentation of Atlantic Tropical Cyclones Changes in HURDAT". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved August 24, 2011. 
  10. ^ Staff Writer (December 2, 1925). "Four Lives Lost in Storm Off Tampa Coast". Morning Avalanche. 
  11. ^ Associated Press (December 2, 1925). "Tropical Storm Ravages Florida Coast". The Morning News Review. 
  12. ^ Staff Writer (December 2, 1925). "Middle Atlantic Coast is Swept by Furious Gale". The Zanesville Signal. 

External links[edit]