|Centuries:||19th century – 20th century – 21st century|
|Decades:||1900s 1910s 1920s – 1930s – 1940s 1950s 1960s|
|Years:||1927 1928 1929 – 1930 – 1931 1932 1933|
|1930 by topic:|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Works and introductions categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2683|
|British Regnal year||19 Geo. 5 – 20 Geo. 5|
|Chinese calendar||己巳年 (Earth Snake)
4626 or 4566
— to —
庚午年 (Metal Horse)
4627 or 4567
|- Vikram Samvat||1986–1987|
|- Shaka Samvat||1852–1853|
|- Kali Yuga||5031–5032|
|Japanese calendar||Shōwa 5
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 13 days|
|Minguo calendar||ROC 19
|Thai solar calendar||2473|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1930.|
1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar, the 1930th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 930th year of the 2nd millennium, the 30th year of the 20th century, and the 1st year of the 1930s decade.
- January 6
- The first diesel engine automobile trip is completed (Indianapolis, Indiana, to New York City) by Clessie Cummins, founder of the Cummins Motor Co..
- An early literary character licensing agreement is signed by A. A. Milne, granting Stephen Slesinger U.S. and Canadian merchandising rights to the Winnie-the-Pooh works.
- January 13 – The Mickey Mouse comic strip makes its first appearance.
- January 26 – The Indian National Congress declares this date as Independence Day or as the day for Poorna Swaraj (Complete Independence).
- January 28 – The first patent for a field-effect transistor is granted in the United States to Julius Edgar Lilienfeld.
- January 30 – Pavel Molchanov launches a radiosonde from Pavlovsk in the Soviet Union.
- January 31 – The 3M company markets Scotch Tape, invented by Richard Gurley Drew, in the United States.
- February 2 – The Communist Party of Vietnam is established.
- February 10 – The Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng launch the Yên Bái mutiny in the hope of ending French colonial rule in Vietnam.
- February 18
- March 2 – Mahatma Gandhi informs the British viceroy of India that civil disobedience will begin 9 days later.
- March 5 – Danish painter Einar Wegener begins sexual reassignment surgery in Germany and takes the name Lili Elbe.
- March 6 – The first frozen foods of Clarence Birdseye go on sale in Springfield, Massachusetts.
- March 12 – Mahatma Gandhi sets off on a 200-mile protest march towards the sea with 78 followers to protest at the British monopoly on salt; more will join them during the Salt March that ends on April 5.
- March 28 – The government of Turkey requests the international community to adopt Istanbul and Ankara as the official names for Constantinople and Angora.
- March 29 – Heinrich Brüning is appointed Chancellor of Germany.
- March 31 – The Motion Picture Production Code ("Hays Code") is instituted in the United States, imposing strict guidelines on the treatment of sex, crime, religion and violence on films for the next 40 years.
- April 4 – The Communist Party of Panama is founded.
- April 5 – In an act of civil disobedience, Mahatma Gandhi breaks the Salt laws of British India by making salt by the sea at the end of the Salt March.
- April 6
- April 17 – Neoprene is invented by DuPont.
- April 18
- April 19 – Warner Bros. in the United States release their first cartoon series called Looney Tunes which runs until 1969.
- April 21
- April 22 – The United Kingdom, Japan and the United States sign the London Naval Treaty to regulate submarine warfare and limit naval shipbuilding.
- April 28 – The first night game in organized baseball history takes place in Independence, Kansas.
- May 4 or 5 – Mahatma Gandhi is arrested again.
- May 6 – The Great Salmas Earthquake in Iran (7.3 on the Richter Scale) kills 4,000 people.
- May 10 – The National Pan-Hellenic Council is founded in Washington, D.C..
- May 15 – Nurse Ellen Church becomes the world's first flight attendant, working on a Boeing Air Transport trimotor.
- May 16 – Rafael Leónidas Trujillo is elected president of the Dominican Republic.
- May 17 – French Prime Minister André Tardieu decides to withdraw the remaining French troops from the Rhineland (they depart by June 30).
- May 24 – Amy Johnson lands in Darwin, Australia, becoming the first woman to fly solo from England to Australia (she left on May 5 for the 11,000 mile flight).
- May 30
- June 9 – Chicago Tribune journalist Jake Lingle is shot in Chicago, Illinois. Newspapers promise $55,000 reward for information. Lingle is later found to have had contacts with organized crime.
- June 14 – Bureau of Narcotics established under the United States Department of the Treasury, replacing the Narcotics Division of the Prohibition Unit.
- June 17 – President of the United States Herbert Hoover signs the Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act into law.
- June 21 – One-year conscription comes into force in France.
- July 4 – The dedication of George Washington's sculpted head is held at Mount Rushmore in South Dakota.
- July 5 – The Seventh Lambeth Conference of Anglican bishops opens. This conference approves the use of birth control in limited circumstances, a move away from the Christian views on contraception expressed by the Sixth Conference a decade earlier.
- July 7
- July 11 – Australian cricketer Donald Bradman scores a world record 309 runs in one day, on his way to the highest individual Test innings of 334, during a Test match against England.
- July 13 – The first FIFA World Cup starts: Lucien Laurent scores the first goal, for France against Mexico.
- July 19 – Georges Simenon's detective character Inspector Jules Maigret makes his first appearance in print under Simenon's own name when the novel Pietr-le-Letton (known in English as The Strange Case of Peter the Lett) begins serialization in a French weekly magazine. Simenon will eventually write 75 novels (as well as 28 short stories) featuring the pipe-smoking Paris detective.
- July 21 – United States Department of Veterans Affairs established.
- July 25 – Laurence Olivier marries Jill Esmond.
- July 26 – Charles Creighton and James Hargis of Missouri begin their return journey to Los Angeles using only a reverse gear; the 11,555 km trip lasts 42 days.
- July 28 – R. B. Bennett defeats William Lyon Mackenzie King in federal elections and becomes the Prime Minister of Canada.
- July 29 – British airship R100 sets out for a successful 78-hour passage to Canada.
- July 30
- July 31 – The radio drama The Shadow airs for the first time in the United States.
- August 6 – Judge Joseph Force Crater steps into a taxi in New York City and disappears.
- August 7
- August 9 – Betty Boop premieres in the animated film Dizzy Dishes.
- August 12 – Turkish troops move into Persia to fight Kurdish insurgents.
- August 16 – The first British Empire Games open in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
- August 21 – Princess Margaret Rose is born at Glamis Castle in Scotland, younger daughter of Prince Albert, Duke of York (second son of King George V and Queen Mary, and later King George VI) and Elizabeth, Duchess of York, and sister to The Princess Elizabeth.
- August 27 – A military junta takes over in Peru.
- September 6 – José Félix Uriburu carries out a military coup, overthrowing Hipólito Yrigoyen, President of Argentina.
- September 12 – England cricketer Wilfred Rhodes ends his 1,110-game first-class career by taking 5 for 95 for H. D. G. Leveson Gower's XI against the Australians.
- September 14 – German election, 1930: National Socialists win 107 seats in the German Parliament, the Reichstag (18.3% of all the votes), making them the second largest party.
- September 20 – The Eastern Catholic Rite Syro-Malankara Catholic Church is formed.
- September 27 – İsmet İnönü forms a new government in Turkey (6th government).
- October – The Indochinese Communist Party is formed.
- October 5 – British airship R101 crashes in France en route to India on its maiden long-range flight resulting in the loss of 48 lives.
- October 20 – A British White Paper demands restrictions on Jewish immigration into Mandatory Palestine.
- October 24 – Revolution of 1930 in Brazil: Getúlio Dornelles Vargas establishes a dictatorship.
- October 27 – Ratifications exchanged in London on the first London Naval Treaty signed in April modifying the Washington Naval Treaty of 1925. Its arms limitation provisions go into effect immediately, hence putting more limits on the expensive naval arms race between its five signatories (the United Kingdom, the United States, the Japanese Empire, France, and Italy.)
- November 2 – Haile Selassie is crowned emperor of Ethiopia.
- November 3 – Getúlio Vargas becomes president of Brazil.
- November 25
- December – All adult Turkish women are given the right to vote in elections.
- December 2 – Great Depression: President Herbert Hoover goes before the United States Congress to ask for a $150 million public works program to help create jobs and to stimulate the American economy.
- December 7 – The television station W1XAV in Boston, Massachusetts, broadcasts video and audio from the radio orchestra program The Fox Trappers. This broadcast also includes the first television commercial in the United States, an advertisement for the I. J. Fox Furriers company which sponsored the telecast.
- December 19 – Mount Merapi volcano in central Java, Indonesia, erupts, destroying numerous villages and killing thirteen hundred people.
- December 24 – In London, inventor Harry Grindell Matthews demonstrates his device to project pictures on the clouds.
- December 28 – Mahatma Gandhi leaves India en route to Britain to join the Second Round Table Conference on the future of India.
- December 29 – Sir Muhammad Iqbal's presidential address in Allahabad introduces the two nation theory, outlining a vision for the creation of Pakistan.
- December 31 – The Papal encyclical Casti Connubii issued by Pope Pius XI stresses the sanctity of marriage, prohibits Roman Catholics from using any form of artificial birth control, and reaffirms the Catholic prohibition on abortion.
- A "Jake paralysis" outbreak occurs in the United States resulting from adulterated Jamaica ginger sold as an alcohol substitute during Prohibition.
- Bernhard Schmidt invents the Schmidt camera.
- The chocolate chip cookie is invented by Ruth Wakefield of the Toll House Inn in Whitman, Massachusetts.
- A huge hurricane on the Caribbean Sea demolishes most of the city of Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic.
- The experimental television station, W9XAP, in Chicago, Illinois, broadcasts the election for the United States Senate, the first time that a senatorial race, with continual tallies of the votes, is televised.
- Greater Sudbury is incorporated as a city in northern Ontario.
- 1930–1931 – Crazy Horse's lifelong friend, "He Dog" of the Oglala Lakota, is interviewed by journalist Eleanor Hinman and writer Mari Sandoz.
- January 1 – Gaafar Nimeiry, President of Sudan (d. 2009)
- January 2 – Julius LaRosa, American singer
- January 3
- January 4 – Sorrell Booke, American actor (d. 1994)
- January 5 – Jesús Rosas Marcano, Venezuelan poet (d. 2001)
- January 6
- January 10 – Roy E. Disney, American film and television executive (d. 2009)
- January 12 – Jennifer Johnston, Irish novelist
- January 19 – Tippi Hedren, American actress
- January 20 – Buzz Aldrin, American pilot and astronaut, Apollo 11 second person to set foot on the Moon
- January 23 – Derek Walcott, West Indian writer, Nobel Prize laureate
- January 24 – Rita Lakin, American author
- January 26 – John Straffen, British serial killer (d. 2007)
- January 27
- January 30
- February 1 – Hussain Muhammad Ershad, former President of Bangladesh
- February 6 – Allan King, Canadian director (d. 2009)
- February 8
- February 10 – Robert Wagner, American actor
- February 12 – Arlen Specter, American politician (d. 2012)
- February 15 – Sarah Jane Moore, American convicted of attempted murder of the President
- February 16
- February 19 – John Frankenheimer, American film director (d. 2002)
- February 20 – Ken Jones, British actor (d. 2014)
- February 21 – Dr. Dame Joan Metge, New Zealand social anthropologist, educator, lecturer and writer
- February 22
- February 24
- February 27
- February 28 – Leon Neil Cooper, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate
- March 2 – Tom Wolfe, American author and novelist
- March 3
- March 6
- March 7 – Antony Armstrong-Jones, 1st Earl of Snowdon
- March 8 – Hector Lombana, Colombian sculptor, painter and architect (d. 2008)
- March 10 – Claude Bolling, French jazz pianist and composer
- March 13 – Liz Anderson, American country music singer-songwriter (d. 2011)
- March 15 – Zhores Ivanovich Alferov, Russian physicist, Nobel Prize laureate
- March 17 – James Irwin, American astronaut (d. 1991)
- March 18 – Adam Cardinal Maida, American Roman Catholic prelate; Archbishop of Detroit (1990–2009)
- March 19 – Ornette Coleman, American musician
- March 20 – Willie Thrower, American football player (d. 2002)
- March 22
- March 24
- March 25 – John Keel, American author (d. 2009)
- March 26 – Sandra Day O'Connor, U.S. Supreme Court Justice (1981–2006)
- March 27 – David Janssen, American actor (d. 1980)
- March 28
- March 30
- April 1 – Grace Lee Whitney, American actress
- April 2 – Roddy Maude-Roxby, English actor
- April 3
- April 7 – Andrew Sachs, German-born British actor
- April 8 – Carlos Hugo of Bourbon-Parma, Duke of Parma (d. 2010)
- April 10 – Spede Pasanen, Finnish television personality (d. 2001)
- April 11 – Anton LaVey, American Satanist (d. 1997)
- April 12 – Michał Życzkowski, Polish Professor of Engineering (d. 2006)
- April 15 – Vigdís Finnbogadóttir, President of Iceland
- April 16
- April 19 – Dick Sargent, American actor and gay activist (d. 1994)
- April 21 – Silvana Mangano, Italian actress (d. 1989)
- April 23 – Alan Oppenheimer, American actor
- April 24 – Richard Donner, American film director and producer
- April 25 – Paul Mazursky, American director and writer
- April 28
- April 29 – Jean Rochefort, French actor
- May 3
- May 4
- May 8 – Heather Harper, Northern Irish soprano
- May 9 – Joan Sims, English actress (d. 2001)
- May 10 – Pat Summerall, American football player and broadcaster (d. 2013)
- May 11
- May 15 – Jasper Johns, American painter
- May 19 – Lorraine Hansberry, American playwright (d. 1965)
- May 21 – Malcolm Fraser, 22nd Prime Minister of Australia
- May 22
- May 28 – Frank Drake, American radio astronomer and pioneer in SETI
- May 31 – Clint Eastwood, American actor, director, and producer
- June 1 – Edward Woodward, British actor (d. 2009)
- June 2 – Charles Conrad, American astronaut and moonwalker, commander of Apollo 12 (d. 1999)
- June 8 – Robert Aumann, German-born mathematician, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Economics
- June 9 – Monique Serf, French singer (d. 1997)
- June 11 – Charles B. Rangel, African-American politician
- June 12 – Jim Nabors, American actor, musician, and comedian
- June 17 – Brian Statham, English cricketer (d. 2000)
- June 19 – Gena Rowlands, American actress
- June 22 – Yuri Artyukhin, Russian cosmonaut (d. 1998)
- June 24
- June 25 – László Antal, Hungarian linguist (d. 1993)
- June 27 – H. Ross Perot, American computer billionaire and politician
- June 28 – Itamar Franco, President of Brazil (d. 2011)
- July 2
- July 3 – Carlos Kleiber, Austrian conductor (d. 2004)
- July 4
- July 9 – Buddy Bregman, American musical arranger
- July 11 – Harold Bloom, American literary critic
- July 15
- July 22 – Jeremy Lloyd, British actor and screenwriter
- July 25
- July 28 – Jean Roba, Belgian comics author (d. 2006)
- August 1
- August 5 – Neil Armstrong, American astronaut, first human to set foot on the Moon, Commander of Apollo 11 (d. 2012)
- August 6 – Abbey Lincoln, American singer (d. 2010)
- August 9 – Jacques Parizeau, French-Canadian politician
- August 10 – Jorma Panula, Finnish conductor and composer
- August 12 – George Soros, Hungarian-born investor
- August 13 – Don Ho, Hawaiian singer & musician (d. 2007)
- August 14 – Earl Weaver, American professional baseball player and manager (d. 2013)
- August 15 – Selma James, American-born feminist writer
- August 16 – Robert Culp, American actor (d. 2010)
- August 17 – Ted Hughes, English poet (d. 1998)
- August 18 – Rafael Pineda Ponce, Honduran educator and politician. (d. 2014)
- August 19 – Frank McCourt, Irish-American writer (d. 2009)
- August 21 – Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon (d. 2002)
- August 22 – Gylmar dos Santos Neves, Brazilian footballer (d. 2013)
- August 23 – Mickey McMahan, American big band musician (d. 2008)
- August 25 – Sean Connery, Scottish actor
- August 27 – Gholamreza Takhti, Iranian wrestler (d. 1968)
- August 28 – Ben Gazzara, American actor (d. 2012)
- August 30 – Warren Buffett, American billionaire entrepreneur
- September 3 – Cherry Wilder, New Zealand author (d. 2002)
- September 7
- September 9 – Frank Lucas, African-American drug lord
- September 11
- September 13
- September 16 – Anne Francis, American actress (d. 2011)
- September 20 – Kenneth Mopeli, Chief Minister of QwaQwa bantustan
- September 21 – Dawn Addams, British actress (d. 1985)
- September 23
- September 24 – Angelo Muscat, Maltese actor (d. 1977)
- September 25 – Shel Silverstein, American author, poet, and humorist (d. 1999)
- September 26
- October 1
- October 5
- October 6 – Hafez al-Assad, President of Syria (d. 2000)
- October 8 – Tōru Takemitsu, Japanese composer (d. 1996)
- October 10
- October 11 – Sam Johnson, American politician
- October 14
- October 17
- October 19 – Jody Lawrance, American actress (d. 1986)
- October 24 – The Big Bopper, American singer (d. 1959)
- October 28 – Bernie Ecclestone, English auto racing tycoon
- October 29
- October 30
- October 31 – Michael Collins, astronaut, second person to fly around the Moon solo, Command Module pilot on Apollo 11, the first human lunar landing
- November 3 – D. James Kennedy, American evangelist (d. 2007)
- November 6 – Derrick Bell, law professor, Wilma Briggs, American female baseball player (d. 2011)
- November 14
- November 15 – J. G. Ballard, English writer (d. 2009)
- November 16
- November 20 – Bernard Horsfall, British actor (d. 2013)
- November 24 – Bob Friend, American baseball player
- November 25 – Clarke Scholes, American freestyle swimmer (d. 2010)
- November 27 – Rex Shelley, Singaporean author (d. 2009)
- November 30 – G. Gordon Liddy, organizer of the Watergate burglaries
- December 1 – Joachim Hoffmann, German historian (d. 2002)
- December 2 – Gary Becker, American economist, Nobel Prize laureate
- December 3 – Jean-Luc Godard, French film director
- December 4 – Jim Hall, American jazz guitarist (d. 2013)
- December 6 – Daniel Lisulo, Prime Minister of Zambia (d. 2000)
- December 7 – Christopher Nicole, British writer
- December 8
- December 9 – Edoardo Sanguineti, Italian writer (d. 2010)
- December 11
- December 15 – Edna O'Brien, Irish writer
- December 17 – Armin Mueller-Stahl, German actor
- December 21
- December 25 – Salah Jahin, Egyptian poet, lyricist, playwright and cartoonist (d. 1986)
- December 27 – Wilfrid Sheed, English-born American writer (d. 2011)
- December 28 – Gladys Ambrose, English actress (d. 1998)
- December 29 – Frank Dezelan, American baseball umpire (d. 2011)
- December 31
- January 9 – Edward Bok, American author (b. 1863)
- January 13 – John Nathan Cobb, American author, naturalist, conservationist, fisheries researcher, and educator (b. 1868)
- January 27 – Dewa Shigetō, Japanese admiral (b. 1856)
- February 3 – Michele Bianchi, Italian fascist leader (b. 1883)
- February 14 – Sir Thomas MacKenzie, New Zealand Prime Minister and High Commissioner (b. 1854)
- February 15 – Giulio Douhet, Italian air power theorist (b. 1869)
- February 21 – Ahmad Shah Qajar, Shah of Persia (b. 1898)
- February 23
- February 28 – Sir Perceval Maitland Laurence, English classical scholar, South African judge and a benefactor of the University of Cambridge (b. 1854)
- March 2 – D. H. Lawrence, English writer (Lady Chatterley's Lover) (b. 1885)
- March 6 – Alfred von Tirpitz, German politician and admiral (b. 1848)
- March 8 – William Howard Taft, 27th President of the United States, 10th Chief Justice of the United States (b. 1857)
- March 12 – William George Barker, Canadian pilot
- March 19 – Arthur James Balfour, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1848)
- March 24 – Eugeen Van Mieghem, Belgian painter (b. 1875)
- April 2 – Empress Zawditu of Ethiopia (b. 1876)
- April 21 – Robert Bridges, English poet (b. 1844)
- April 14 →
- April 22 – Jeppe Aakjær, Danish poet and novelist (b. 1866)
- May 13 – Fridtjof Nansen, Norwegian explorer, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1861)
- May 17 – Herbert Croly, American political author (b. 1869)
- May 25 – Randall Thomas Davidson, Archbishop of Canterbury (b. 1848)
- June 5 – Pascin, Bulgarian painter (b. 1885)
- June 13 – Henry Segrave, British racer and speed record holder (b. 1896)
- July 7 – Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Scottish writer (Sherlock Holmes) (b. 1859)
- July 8 – Sir Joseph Ward, 17th Prime Minister of New Zealand (b. 1856)
- July 15
- July 19 – Oku Yasukata, Japanese field marshal and a leading figure in the early Imperial Japanese Army (b. 1847)
- July 23 – Glenn Curtiss, American aviation pioneer (b. 1878)
- July 26 – Pavlos Karolidis, Greek historian (b. 1849)
- July 28 – Allvar Gullstrand, Swedish ophthalmologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1862)
- July 30 – Joan Gamper, Swiss-born businessman and founder of FC Barcelona (b. 1877)
- August 15 – Florian Cajori, Swiss-born historian of mathematics (b. 1859)
- August 24 – Tom Norman, English freak showman (b. 1860)
- August 26 – Lon Chaney, Sr., American actor (b. 1883)
- August 29 – William Archibald Spooner, British scholar and Anglican priest (b. 1844)
- September 1 – Peeter Põld, Estonian pedagogical scientist and politician (b. 1878)
- September 10 – Aubrey Faulkner, South African cricketer (b. 1881)
- September 15 – Milton Sills, American actor (b. 1882)
- September 20 – Gombojab Tsybikov, Russian explorer (b. 1873)
- September 21 – John T. Dorrance, American chemist (b. 1873)
- September 24 – William A. MacCorkle, Governor of West Virginia (b. 1857)
- October 2 – Gordon Stewart Northcott, American serial killer (executed) (b. 1906)
- October 15 – Herbert Dow, Canadian-born chemical industrialist
- October 20 – Valeriano Weyler, 1st Duke of Rubí, Spanish general (b. 1838)
- October 26 – Harry Payne Whitney, American businessman and horse breeder (b. 1872)
- November 5
- November 20 – William B. Hanna, American sportswriter (b. 1866)
- November 28 – Constantine VI, former Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople (b. 1859)
- November 30 – Mary Harris Jones, American labor leader (b. 1837)
- November – Alfred Wegener, German geophysicist and meteorologist (b. 1880)
- December 9
- December 12 – Nikolai Pokrovsky, Russian politician and the last foreign minister of the Russian Empire (b. 1865)
- December 13 – Fritz Pregl, Austrian chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1869)
- December 14 – F. Richard Jones, American director (b. 1893)
- December 17 – Peter Warlock, Anglo-Welsh composer (b. 1894)
- Physics – Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman
- Chemistry – Hans Fischer
- Physiology or Medicine – Karl Landsteiner
- Literature – Sinclair Lewis
- Peace – Nathan Söderblom
- U.S. Patent 1,745,175 Method and apparatus for controlling electric currents, first filed in Canada on October 22, 1925. Lee, Thomas H. (2004). The Design of CMOS Radio-Frequency Integrated Circuits (New ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 167ff. ISBN 9780521835398.
- "Maigret of the Month: Pietr-le-Letton (Maigret and the Enigmatic Lett)". July 2004. Retrieved 2013-04-05.
- Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 978-0-14-102715-9.
- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 372–373. ISBN 978-0-7126-5616-0.
- Wainwright, M.; Swan, H.T. (1986). "C.G. Paine and the earliest surviving clinical records of penicillin therapy". Medical History 30: 42–56. doi:10.1017/S0025727300045026. PMC 1139580. PMID 3511336. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
- "The Schmidt Camera". ast.ac.uk. Archived from the original on May 24, 2008.
- The 1930s Timeline: 1930 – from American Studies Programs at The University of Virginia