1932 armed uprising in Mongolia

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The 1932 armed uprising (Mongolian: 1932 оны зэвсэгт бослого, 1932 ony zevsegt boslogo) was a revolt against the communist government of the Mongolian People's Republic. It covered four aimags in the northwest of the country and lasted from April–October 1932. The principal leaders were lamas, but a lot of lay people, among them party members[1] and even members of the local bureaucracy[2] joined the rebellion. The insurgents were inspired by rumours of support from the Panchen Lama and the Japanese.[3][4] They were noted for a number of atrocities they committed, but the Mongolian and Soviet troops sent to quell the rebellion also engaged in brutalities.[5] More than 1500 people were killed.[6]

Background[edit]

In late 1928, the government of the Mongolian People's Republic and the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party had begun to implement policies aimed at the quick introduction of communism. Private trade and private transport were forbidden, at the same time Mongolia's lifestock economy was to be collectivized, the feudal nobles were expropriated and the lamaist church was targeted by excessive taxes. Unfortunately, the state-sponsored transport and trade organizations were not at all able to replace the old, private-owned networks, and neglect and mismanagement in the new-founded collectives (Mongolian: khamtral) lead to the loss of 7 million heads of lifestock, or one third of the 1929 level. All this resulted not only in a steady stream across the border to Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang, but also to local uprisings—for example, the uprising at Tögsbuyant monastery of Uvs aimag, which lasted from March to May 1930.[7][8]

Outline of events[edit]

The 1932 uprising began on April 10 or 11th in the Khyalganat monastery of Rashaant sum in Khövsgöl aimag, and spread quickly to neighbouring monasteries. The insurgents founded a high command under the name ‘’Ochirbatyn tsergiin yaam’’ (Mongolian: Ochirbat’s ministry of war), and began arming the local lamas, burning down collective and sum centres, and killing opponents, especially targeting officials, party and youth league members. The first response by the Mongolian government was the establishment of an extraordinary commission headed by J. Lkhümbe, and the deployment of armed units by the Ministry of the Interior in Ulaanbaatar, on April 15/16th.[9] However, the uprising got under control only in July/August 1932, after the Mongolian and Soviet armies,[5] tanks and planes had been involved. The last resistance was broken by October.

Results[edit]

The uprising covered four aimags (Khövsgöl, Arkhangai, Övörkhangai, and Zavkhan). The numbers are somewhat fragmentary, but more than 3,000 people are said to have participated on the side of the insurgents, and they are said to have killed more than 700 people between April and July 1932. According to a short-time chairman of the Defense Council, D. Ölziibat, 500 insurgents were killed in 16 battles, and 615 insurgents were condemned to death by drumhead courts-martial. 35 sum centres and 45 cooperatives were destroyed.[6]

Aftermath[edit]

The anti-religious policies were eased after June 1932, and collectivization was called off. However, the Mongolian nobility had been destroyed, and the political moderation was only to be temporary: the Buddhist church would be almost completely eradicated in the Stalinist purges of the late 1930s, and lifestock would be collectivized again in the 1950s.[10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ C.R. Bawden, The Modern History of Mongolia, London 1968, p. 316
  2. ^ D. Tserenbaljir, 1932 ony zevsegt boslogo, Ulaanbaatar 1990, p.21, 53
  3. ^ D. Tserenbaljir, 1932 ony zevsegt boslogo, Ulaanbaatar 1990, p.53
  4. ^ C.R. Bawden, The Modern History of Mongolia, London 1968, p. 317f
  5. ^ a b C.R. Bawden, The Modern History of Mongolia, London 1968, p. 320
  6. ^ a b D. Tserenbaljir, 1932 ony zevsegt boslogo, Ulaanbaatar 1990, p.94f
  7. ^ C.R. Bawden, The Modern History of Mongolia, London 1968, pp. 301-318
  8. ^ D. Tserenbaljir, 1932 ony zevsegt boslogo, Ulaanbaatar 1990, p. 19
  9. ^ D. Tserenbaljir, 1932 ony zevsegt boslogo, Ulaanbaatar 1990, p. 33f
  10. ^ C.R. Bawden, The Modern History of Mongolia, London 1968, p. 320ff