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|Centuries:||19th century – 20th century – 21st century|
|Decades:||1900s 1910s 1920s – 1930s – 1940s 1950s 1960s|
|Years:||1931 1932 1933 – 1934 – 1935 1936 1937|
|1934 by topic:|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Works and introductions categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2687|
|British Regnal year||23 Geo. 5 – 24 Geo. 5|
|Chinese calendar||癸酉年 (Water Rooster)
4630 or 4570
— to —
甲戌年 (Wood Dog)
4631 or 4571
|- Vikram Samvat||1990–1991|
|- Shaka Samvat||1856–1857|
|- Kali Yuga||5035–5036|
|Japanese calendar||Shōwa 9
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 13 days|
|Minguo calendar||ROC 23
|Thai solar calendar||2477|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1934.|
- January 1 Alcatraz officially becomes a federal prison.
- January 1
- January 7 – The first Flash Gordon comic strip is published in the U.S.
- January 10 – Marinus van der Lubbe is executed in Germany for setting the Reichstag fire.
- January 13 – The Candidate of Science degree is established in the Soviet Union.
- January 20 – The Japanese company Fuji Photo Film is established.
- January 24
- January 26
- February 6 – French political crisis: The French far right leagues rally in front of the Palais Bourbon in an attempted coup d'état against the Third Republic.
- February 9
- February 12 – The Export-Import Bank is incorporated.
- February 12–16 – Austrian Civil War: the Fatherland's Front consolidates its power in a series of clashes across the country.
- February 16 – Commission of Government sworn in as form of direct rule for the Dominion of Newfoundland.
- February 17 – Stanley William Allen is Born
- February 21 – Augusto César Sandino is assassinated in Managua by the National Guard.
- February 22 – Frank Capra's It Happened One Night, starring Clark Gable and Claudette Colbert, is released. It becomes a smash hit and the first of Capra's great screen classics, being the first film to win all 5 of the major Academy Awards – Best Actor, Best Actress, Best Screenplay, Best Director, and Best Picture. Gable and Colbert receive their only Oscars for this film.
- February 23 – Léopold III becomes King of Belgium.
- March 1 – Evelyn Burrows was Born
- March 1 – Manchuria becomes Manchukuo, following an invasion by the Japanese.
- March 3
- March 8 – Prince Sigvard of Sweden loses his titles because of his marriage to a commoner.
- March 12 – Konstantin Päts and general Johan Laidoner stage a coup in Estonia, and ban all political parties.
- March 13 – John Dillinger, Baby Face Nelson and their gang rob the First National Bank in Mason City, Iowa.
- March 20
- March 22-25 – The first Masters Tournament is held in Augusta, Georgia. Horton Smith is the winner.
- March 24 – The Philippine Commonwealth is established, allowing for a greater degree of self-government from the United States.
- April 1
- April 6 – Rudyard Kipling and William Butler Yeats are awarded the Gothenburg Prize for Poetry.
- April 12
- April 22 – John Dillinger and two others shoot their way out of an FBI ambush in northern Wisconsin.
- April 28 – FA Cup Final in England: Manchester City beat Portsmouth F.C. 2 – 1 at Wembley Stadium.
- April 30 – The first S-train line in Copenhagen is opened, from Klampenborg to Frederiksberg.
- May 1 – The May Constitution of 1934 heralds the beginning of the Austrofascist Federal State of Austria
- May 5 – The first Three Stooges short, Woman Haters, is released.
- May 7 – The Pearl of Lao Tzu, 24 x 14 cm, is found in a giant clam off Palawan, Philippines.
- May 11 – Dust Bowl in North America: A strong 2-day dust storm removes massive amounts of Great Plains topsoil in one of the region's worst dust storms.
- May 15
- May 19 – Kimon Georgiev stages a coup d'etat in Bulgaria.
- May 23 – A team of police officers, led by former Texas Ranger Frank Hamer, ambush bank robbers Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow near Gibsland, Louisiana, killing them both.
- May 24
- May 28 – Near Callander, Ontario, the Dionne quintuplets are born to Oliva and Elzire Dionne, becoming the first quintuplets to survive infancy.
- May 29 – May 31 – The Confessional Synod of the German Evangelical Church meets in Barmen, Germany to write the Barmen Declaration
- June 6 – New Deal: U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Securities Exchange Act into law, establishing the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.
- June 9 – The animated short The Wise Little Hen, directed by Bert Gillett for the Silly Symphonies series, and featuring the debut of Donald Duck, is released.
- June 10 – Italy beats Czechoslovakia 2–1 after extra time to win the 1934 World Cup.
- June 12 – Political parties are banned in Bulgaria.
- June 14 – Max Baer defeats champion Primo Carnera for the world heavyweight boxing title.
- June 18 – The Indian Reorganization Act is enacted.
- June 26 – The National Firearms Act is enacted.
- June 27
- June 28 – Division of Grazing created within the United States Department of the Interior.
- June 30–July 2 – Night of the Long Knives in Germany: Nazis purge the Sturmabteilung (SA), the left-wing Strasserist faction of the Nazi Party and prominent conservative anti-Nazis in a series of political murders.
- June 30 – The Nazi Party SA camp Oranienburg becomes a national camp, taken over by the Schutzstaffel (SS).
- July 1
- The Hays Office Motion Picture Production Code, setting restrictions on the treatment of morally sensitive subjects, goes into full effect in the United States.
- The Aeronautics Branch of the United States Department of Commerce is renamed the Bureau of Air Commerce.
- The Brookfield Zoo opens in Brookfield, Illinois.
- July 10 – German Social Democrat and author Erich Mühsam is killed in Oranienburg concentration camp.
- July 17 – The North Dakota Supreme Court declares Lieutenant Governor Ole H. Olson the legitimate governor and tells William Langer to resign. Langer proceeds to declare North Dakota independent. He revokes the declaration after the Supreme Court justices meet him.
- July 22 – Outside Chicago's Biograph Theatre, "Public Enemy No. 1" John Dillinger is mortally wounded by FBI agents.
- July 25 – Austrian Nazis assassinate chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss during a failed coup attempt.
- August 2 – Adolf Hitler becomes Führer of Germany, or head of state combined with that of Chancellor following the death of President Paul von Hindenburg.
- August 8 – The Wehrmacht swears a personal oath of loyalty to Adolf Hitler.
- August 11 – The first civilian prisoners arrive at Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary in San Francisco Bay.
- August 13 – The comic strip Li'l Abner is first published in U.S. newspapers.
- August 19
- August 25 – Anti-union vigilantes seize the town of McGuffey, Ohio, during the Hardin County onion pickers strike.
- September 5–10 – 8th Nuremberg Rally staged by the German Nazi Party.
- September 8 – Off the New Jersey coast, a fire aboard the passenger liner S.S. Morro Castle kills 134 people.
- September 19
- September 21 – A typhoon in Honshū, Japan kills 3,036 people, and destroys the temple, schools, and other buildings in Osaka.
- September 22 – A gas explosion at Gresford Colliery in Wrexham, north-east Wales kills 266 miners and rescuers, one of Britain's worst coal mining disasters.
- September 28
- September 29 – Stanley Matthews makes his England national football team debut, beginning a record 23-year international career.
- October 2 – A tornado in Osaka and Kyoto kills 1,660, injures 5,400, and destroys the rice harvest.
- October 5 – Asturian miners' strike of 1934: Miners rebel in Asturias, Spain.
- October 6 – Catalonian separatists rebel in Spain.
- October 9 – King Alexander of Yugoslavia and French foreign minister Louis Barthou are assassinated during the king's state visit in Marseilles.
- October 16 – The Long March of the Red Army of the Communist Party of China begins.
- October 22 – Charles Arthur "Pretty Boy" Floyd is shot and killed by FBI agents near East Liverpool, Ohio.
- November 13 – The Italian government decrees that teachers must wear a military or party uniform in a class.
- November 21
- The Marylebone Cricket Club makes an ultimately controversial decision to alter the leg before wicket (lbw) rule so a batsman can be lbw to a ball pitching outside off stump. The change is later blamed for many problems developing during the 1950s, primarily negative bowling outside leg stump to a field of short-leg fieldsmen.
- Cole Porter's musical Anything Goes, starring Ethel Merman, premieres in New York City.
- November 23 – An Anglo-Ethiopian boundary commission in the Ogaden discovers an Italian garrison at Walwal, which lays well within Ethiopian territory. This encounter leads to the Abyssinia Crisis.
- November 26 – Universal Pictures releases the first film version of Fannie Hurst's novel, Imitation of Life, starring Claudette Colbert and Louise Beavers. It gives Beavers, usually featured in small roles as a maid, her best screen role, and features the largest supporting role played by a black person in a Hollywood film up until then. Its storyline partially revolves around a young mulatto girl rejecting her mother and trying to "pass for white", the first Hollywood film to deal with this subject seriously.
- November 27
- December 1
- In the Soviet Union, Politburo member Sergei Kirov is shot and killed at the Communist Party headquarters in Leningrad by Leonid Nikolaev (it is widely thought that Soviet leader Joseph Stalin ordered this murder), initiating the Great Purge.
- In Mexico, Lázaro Cárdenas is inaugurated as President of that country.
- December 5 – Abyssinia Crisis: Ethiopian and Italian troops exchange gunfire. Reported casualties for the Ethiopians are 150, and for the Italians 50.
- December 18 – A low-key fascist conference is held in Moreaux.
- December 24 – Actor Lionel Barrymore begins what will become an annual tradition of the Golden Age of Radio – playing the role of Ebenezer Scrooge in dramatizations of Charles Dickens's A Christmas Carol. Barrymore continues playing Scrooge on radio until shortly before his death in 1954. He will also make a 78-RPM record album of the classic story, which will later be released on LP.
- December 27 – Persia becomes Iran.
- December 29 – Japan renounces the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 and the London Naval Treaty of 1930.
- The NKVD (Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs) of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic becomes the all-union security force of the Soviet Union.
- Abidjan becomes the capital of the French colony of Côte d'Ivoire.
- The United States Marine Corps leaves Haiti.
- The United States Congress makes the Philippines a self-governing commonwealth and schedules independence for 1944. Sugar imports are reduced and immigration is limited to 50 Filipino people per year.
- In Australia the Australian frontier wars end after 146 years.
- The "British Committee for Relations with Other Countries", which will become the British Council, is set up to foster cultural relations.
- International Union of National Tourist Propaganda Organizations (IUNTPO) established.
- The sonoluminescence effect is discovered at the University of Cologne.
- The Quintette du Hot Club de France is established and produces two of the most famous jazz instrumental icons Stéphane Grappelli and Django Reinhardt.
- The greatest building boom in British history was getting underway. The 1930s building boom saw many millions of new homes built around the country, with vast new estates in most cities, epitomised by houses featuring ubiquitous rounded bay windows.
- The first ever National Beta Club was created in Landrum, South Carolina, by Dr. John W. Harris
- January 1 – George D. Behrakis, Greek American philanthropist
- January 5 – Eddy Pieters Graafland, Dutch football goalkeeper
- January 7 – Charles Jenkins, American sprinter
- January 8 – Piet Dankert, Dutch politician (d. 2003)
- January 9 – Bart Starr, American football player
- January 11 – Jean Chrétien, Prime Minister of Canada
- January 12 – Mick Sullivan, English rugby league footballer
- January 13 – Rip Taylor, American comedian
- January 14 – Richard Briers, English actor (d. 2013)
- January 16 – Marilyn Horne, American mezzo-soprano
- January 17 – Cedar Walton, jazz pianist (d. 2013)
- January 18 – Raymond Briggs, British writer and illustrator
- January 20
- January 21 – Ann Wedgeworth, American actress
- January 22
- January 23 – Lou Antonio, American actor and director
- January 24 – Stanisław Grochowiak, Polish poet and dramatist (d. 1976)
- January 30 – Tammy Grimes, American actress
- February 5 – Hank Aaron, African-American baseball player
- February 7
- February 10 – Fleur Adcock, New Zealand poet
- February 11
- February 12
- February 13 – George Segal, American actor
- February 14
- February 15 – Niklaus Wirth, Swiss computer scientist
- February 16 – Harold "Hal" & Herbert "Herbie" Kalin, American singers (The Kalin Twins) (d. 2005 and 2006, respectively)
- February 17
- February 18 – Ronald F. Marryott, American admiral (d. 2005)
- February 20 – Bobby Unser, American race car driver
- February 21 – Rue McClanahan, American actress (d. 2010)
- February 22
- February 23 – Augusto Algueró, Spanish composer (d. 2011)
- February 24
- February 27
- March 1
- March 4
- March 5
- March 7
- March 9
- March 11 – Sam Donaldson, American reporter
- March 13 – Barry Hughart, American author
- March 14
- March 16
- March 20 – Willie Brown, Mayor of San Francisco, California
- March 22
- March 23 – Mark Rydell, American actor and director
- March 25 – Gloria Steinem, American feminist
- March 26 – Alan Arkin, American actor
- March 31
- April 1
- April 2
- April 3 – Jane Goodall, British zoologist
- April 5 – Roman Herzog, former President of Germany
- April 6 – Anton Geesink, Dutch 10th-dan judoka (d. 2010)
- April 9 – Bill Birch, New Zealand politician
- April 11 – Mark Strand, Canadian-born American poet
- April 18 – James Drury, American actor
- April 24
- April 25
- April 29
- May 3 – Henry Cooper, British boxer
- May 6 – Richard Shelby, U. S. senator from Alabama
- May 9 – Alan Bennett, British actor and writer
- May 13 – Leon Wagner, American baseball player (d. 2004)
- May 15 – George Roper, British comedian (d. 2003)
- May 18 – Dwayne Hickman, American actor
- May 19 – Jim Lehrer, American television journalist
- May 21 – Bengt I. Samuelsson, Swedish biochemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
- May 22 – Peter Nero, American pianist
- May 23 – Robert Moog, American inventor of the synthesizer (d. 2005)
- May 24 – Barry Rose, British choir director and organist
- May 27 – Harlan Ellison, American writer
- May 28 – Dionne quintuplets, Canadian quintuplets
- May 29 – Nanette Newman, English actress and author
- May 30 – Aleksei Leonov, Russian cosmonaut
- June 1
- June 3 – Rolland D. McCune, American theologian
- June 4
- June 5 – Bill Moyers, American journalist
- June 6 – King Albert II of Belgium
- June 16
- June 20 – Samuel Zoll, Massachusetts jurist (d. 2011)
- June 25 – Beatriz Sheridan, Mexican actress and director (d. 2006)
- June 26 – Jeremy Wolfenden, British journalist (d. 1965)
- June 28 – Carl Levin, United States Senator
- June 30 – Harry Blackstone Jr., American magician (d. 1997)
- July 1
- July 10 – Jerry Nelson, American puppeteer (d. 2012)
- July 11 – Giorgio Armani, Italian fashion designer
- July 12 – Van Cliburn, American pianist (d. 2013)
- July 13
- July 14 – John Tyndall, British politician (d. 2005)
- July 15 – Harrison Birtwistle, British composer
- July 21 – Jonathan Miller, British theatre director
- July 24 – P. S. Soosaithasan, Sri Lankan Tamil politician
- July 25 – Luang Por Sumedho, Theravada Buddhist representative in the West
- July 28 – Bud Luckey, an American voice actor and Pixar animator
- July 30 – Bud Selig, American Major League Baseball commissioner
- August 2 – Valery Bykovsky, Russian cosmonaut
- August 3 – Jonas Savimbi, Angolan political and rebel leader (d. 2002)
- August 4 – Dallas Green, American baseball manager and executive
- August 5
- August 6 – Billy Boston, Welsh rugby league footballer
- August 10 – James Tenney, American experimental composer (d. 2006)
- August 15 – Nino Ferrer, French singer (d. 1998)
- August 16
- August 18
- August 19 – Renée Richards, American transsexual physician and tennis player
- August 20
- August 22 – Norman Schwarzkopf, U.S. Army general (d. 2012)
- August 23
- August 25
- August 26 – Tom Heinsohn, American baseketball player, coach, and broadcaster
- August 30
- September 2
- September 4
- September 7 – Little Milton, American musician
- September 8 – Peter Maxwell Davies, English composer
- September 10 – Charles Kuralt, American journalist (d. 1997)
- September 15 – Fred Nile, Australian Christian politician
- September 16
- September 17
- September 19 – Brian Epstein, English manager of the Beatles (d. 1967)
- September 20
- September 21 – Leonard Cohen, Canadian poet, novelist and singer/songwriter
- September 22 – Lute Olson, American basketball coach
- September 23 – Ahmad Shah Khan, Crown Prince of Afghanistan
- September 24
- September 27
- September 28 – Brigitte Bardot, French actress, animal rights activist
- September 30
- October 1
- October 2 – Earl Wilson, baseball player (d. 2005)
- October 3 – Harold Henning, South African golfer (d. 2004)
- October 4 – Sam Huff, American football player
- October 7 – Amiri Baraka, African-American poet, playwright and activist (d. 2014)
- October 9
- October 13 – Nana Mouskouri, Greek singer
- October 17 – Rico Rodriguez, Jamaican trombonist
- October 18 – Chuck Swindoll, American evangelist
- October 20
- October 30
- November 1 – Umberto Agnelli, Swiss-born automobile executive (d. 2004)
- November 6 – Barton Myers, American/Canadian architect
- November 7 – Jackie Joseph, American actress
- November 9 – Carl Sagan, American astronomer and writer (d. 1996)
- November 10 – Joanna Moore, American actress (d. 1997)
- November 12 – Charles Manson, American cult leader and criminal
- November 13 – John Gowans, General of The Salvation Army
- November 15 – Irén Pavlics, Slovene author in Hungary
- November 17 – Jim Inhofe, United States Senator
- November 21 – Laurence Luckinbill, American actor
- November 24 – Alfred Schnittke, Volga German composer (d. 1998)
- November 27
- November 30 – Lansana Conte, President of Guinea (d. 2008)
- December 2 – Andre Rodgers, American baseball player (d. 2004)
- December 3 – Viktor Gorbatko, Russian cosmonaut
- December 4
- December 5 – Joan Didion, American novelist
- December 6 – Nick Bockwinkel, American professional wrestler
- December 9
- December 10 – Howard Martin Temin, American geneticist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1994)
- December 18 – Boris Volynov, Russian cosmonaut
- December 19
- December 24 – Stjepan Mesic, former President of Croatia
- December 27 – Larisa Latynina, Russian gymnast
- December 28
- December 29 – Ed Flanders, American actor (d. 1995)
- December 30
- January 6 – Herbert Chapman, English football manager (b. 1878)
- January 10 – Marinus van der Lubbe, Dutch communist accused of setting fire to the Reichstag (executed) (b. 1909)
- January 29 – Fritz Haber, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1868)
- February 13 – József Pusztai slovene writer, poet, journalist in Hungary (b. 1864)
- February 17 – King Albert I of Belgium (b. 1875)
- February 23 – Edward Elgar, English composer (b. 1857)
- February 25 – John McGraw, American baseball manager and MLB Hall of Famer (b. 1873)
- March 1 – Charles Webster Leadbeater, English author and Theosophist (b.1854)
- March 15 – Davidson Black, Canadian-born paleoanthropologist (b.1884)
- March 20
- March 21 – Lilyan Tashman, American actress (b. 1896)
- March 28 – Mahmoud Mokhtar, Egyptian sculptor (b. 1891)
- March 29 – Otto Hermann Kahn, German-born philanthropist (b. 1867)
- March 30 – Ronald Munro Ferguson, Scottish politician, former Governor-General of Australia (b. 1860)
- April 11 – Gerald du Maurier, British actor (b. 1873)
- April 15 – Karl Dane, Danish actor (b. 1886)
- April 27 – Joe Vila, American sportswriter (b. 1866)
- May 17 – Cass Gilbert, American architect (b. 1859)
- May 21 – Lew Cody, American actor (b. 1884)
- May 23
- May 25 – Gustav Holst, English composer (b. 1874)
- May 30 – Togo Heihachiro, Japanese admiral (b. 1848)
- June 8 – Dorothy Dell, American actress (b. 1915)
- June 10 – Frederick Delius, English composer (b. 1862)
- June 11 – Lev Vygotsky, Russian developmental psychologist (b. 1896)
- June 20 – Andrew Jackson Zilker, American philanthropist (b. 1858)
- June 27 – Francesco Buhagiar, 2nd Prime Minister of Malta (b. 1876)
- June 30 – Murdered during the Night of the Long Knives:
- July 2 – Ernst Röhm, Nazi SA Leader (b. 1887)
- July 4
- July 8 – Benjamin Baillaud, French astronomer (b. 1848)
- July 13 – Kate Sheppard, New Zealand Women's suffrage for voting (b. 1848)
- July 15 – Louis F. Gottschalk, American composer (b. 1864)
- July 18 – Sy Sanborn, American sportswriter (b. 1866)
- July 22 – John Dillinger, American criminal (b. 1903)
- July 25
- July 26 – Winsor McCay, American comic creator and animator (b. 1871)
- July 27 – Hubert Lyautey, Marshal of France (b. 1854)
- July 28
- August 2 – Paul von Hindenburg, German general and politician (b. 1847)
- August 8 - Wilbert Robinson, American baseball manager and MLB Hall of Famer (b. 1863)
- August 9 – Alfred Steux, Belgian road racing cyclist (b. 1892)
- August 10 – George W. Hill, American director (b. 1895)
- August 13 – Mary Hunter Austin, American writer of fiction and non-fiction (b. 1868)
- August 14 – Raymond Hood, American architect (b. 1881)
- August 17 – Charlotte Gilman, noted American poet and playwright (b. 1860)
- September 2
- September 9 – Roger Fry, British artist (b. 1866)
- October 5 – Jean Vigo, French film director (b. 1905)
- October 9 – Alexander I of Yugoslavia, King of Yugoslavia (b. 1888)
- October 12 – Willy Clarkson, English costume designer and wigmaker (b. 1861)
- October 15 – Raymond Poincaré, French President (b. 1860)
- October 17 – Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Spanish histologist and neuroscientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1852)
- October 22 – Pretty Boy Floyd, American bank robber (b. 1904)
- October 29 – Lou Tellegen, Dutch actor (b. 1881)
- November 2 – Edmond James de Rothschild, French philanthropist (b. 1845)
- November 10 – Ion Farris, American politician, former Speaker of the Florida House of Representatives (b. 1878)
- November 16 – Alice Liddell, English schoolgirl, inspiration for Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (b. 1852)
- November 22 – Harry Steppe, American vaudeville performer (b. 1888)
- November 27 – Baby Face Nelson, American gangster (b. 1908)
- November 30 – Hélène Boucher, French aviatrix (b. 1908)
- December 1 – Sergei Kirov, Soviet politician (b. 1886)
- December 6 – Duke Charles Michael of Mecklenburg, head of the House of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (b. 1863)
- December 22 – Wallace Thurman, American writer (b. 1902)
- December 28 – Lowell Sherman, American actor and director (b. 1885)
- Physics – Not awarded this year
- Chemistry – Harold Clayton Urey
- Physiology or Medicine – George Hoyt Whipple, George Richards Minot, William Parry Murphy
- Literature – Luigi Pirandello
- Peace – Arthur Henderson
- Enacted July 1933. Black, Edwin (2001). IBM and the Holocaust. Crown / Random House. p. 93.
- Vogler, Richard (2005). A World View of Criminal Justice. International and Comparative Criminal Justice. pp. 237–238. ISBN 978-0-7546-2467-7.
- "Spiders Attack A Town". The Canberra Times. 1934-06-27. p. 2. Retrieved 2013-03-28.
- "1930s and 1940s". British Council. Retrieved 2011-02-17.
- The 1930s Timeline: 1934 – from American Studies Programs at The University of Virginia